نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license I Open Access I


1 استادیار، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمان، کرمان، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناس ارشد، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمان، کرمان، ایران


هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی تاثیر همزمانی موسیقی با فعالت‌بدنی بر ایمونوگلوبولین A ، اکسیژن مصرفی و تواتر تنفسی می‌باشد. بدین منظور، 18 دانشجوی پسر رشته تربیت بدنی (با میانگین سنی 39/2±6/22 سال، وزن 82/13±44/78 کیلوگرم، شاخص توده بدن 68/3±36/22 کیلوگرم بر متر مربع و قد 08/0±75/1 متر) انتخاب شدند و طی سه جلسه مجزا مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. طی جلسه نخست و با استفاده از آزمون فزاینده بر روی دوچرخه کارسنج، حداکثر بازده توان آزمودنی‌ها اندازه گیری شد. آزمودنی‌ها طی جلسات دوم و سوم در آزمایشگاه حضور یافته و به مدت 20 دقیقه و با شدت 60 درصد حداکثر بازده توان بر روی دوچرخه کارسنج رکاب زدند. ترتیب جلسات با و بدون موسیقی در بین آزمودنی‌ها به صورت تصادفی معکوس بود. یکی از جلسات همراه با موسیقی و دیگری بدون موسیقی اجرا شد. همزمان با رکاب زدن، اکسیژن مصرفی و تواتر تنفسی آزمودنی‌ها اندازه گیری شد. در پایان جلسات دوم و سوم، جهت سنجش ایمونوگلوبولین A نمونه بزاق جمع‌آوری شد. تجزیه و تحلیل اکسیژن مصرفی و ایمونوگلوبولین A با استفاده از آزمونt  همبسته نشان داد بین شرایط موسیقی و بدون موسیقی تفاوت معناداری وجود ندارد (سطح معناداری05/0p≤). مقایسه پس آزمون های تواتر تنفس نشان داد که بین شرایط موسیقی و بدون موسیقی تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد (01/0=p). در مجموع نتایج نشان می دهند که برخلاف تغییرات تواتر تنفسی، همزمانی موسیقی با فعالیت بدنی نتوانسته سطح اکسیژن مصرفی و ایمونوگلوبولین A را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد.



عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Music-Physical Activity Synchronization on Oxygen Consumption, Respiratory Rate and Salivary Immunoglobulin A in Physical Education Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • yahya Asefi 1
  • Fatameh Samareh Jalali 2

1 . Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Kerman, Iran

2 Msc of Physical Education, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Kerman, Iran

چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of synchronization of music with physical activity on immunoglobulin A, oxygen consumption and respiratory rate. For this purpose, 18 male students of physical education (mean age 22.6 ± 2.39 years, weight 78.44 ± 13.82 kg, body mass index 22.36 ± 3.68 kg / m2 and height ± 1.75 ± 0.08 m) were selected and evaluated in three separate sessions.During the first session, the maximum power output of the subjects was measured using an incremental test on the cycle ergometer. The subjects were present in the laboratory during the second and third sessions and cycled on the cycle ergometer for 20 minutes at an intensity of 60% of the maximum power output. The order of sessions with and without music was randomly reversed among the subjects. One session was performed with music and the other without music. Simultaneously with pedaling, oxygen consumption and respiratory rate of the subjects were measured. At the end of the second and third sessions, saliva samples were collected to measure immunoglobulin A. Analysis of oxygen consumption and immunoglobulin A using correlated t-test showed that there is no significant difference between music conditions and without music (Significance level p≤0.05). Comparison of respiratory rate post-tests showed that there is a significant difference between music and non-music conditions (p = 0.01). Overall, the results show that despite changes in respiratory rate, the synchronization of music with physical activity could not affect the level of oxygen consumption and immunoglobulin A.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical activity - synchronization music - Autonomic nervous system
  • Oxygen consumption
  • Respiratory rate
  1. Karageorghis CI. Music‐Related Interventions in the Exercise Domain: A Theory‐Based Approach. Handbook of sport psychology. 2020:929-49.
  2. Eliakim M, Meckel Y, Nemet D, Eliakim A. The effect of music during warm-up on consecutive anaerobic performance in elite adolescent volleyball players. International journal of sports medicine. 2007;28(04):321-5.
  3. Terry PC, Karageorghis CI, Curran ML, Martin OV, Parsons-Smith RL. Effects of music in exercise and sport: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin. 2020;146(2):91.
  4. Karageorghis CI. Applying music in exercise and sport: Human Kinetics; 2016.
  5. Terry PC, Karageorghis CI. Music in sport and exercise. 2011.
  6. Bood RJ, Nijssen M, Van Der Kamp J, Roerdink M. The power of auditory-motor synchronization in sports: enhancing running performance by coupling cadence with the right beats. PloS one. 2013;8(8):e70758.
  7. Lim HB, Karageorghis CI, Romer LM, Bishop DT. Psychophysiological effects of synchronous versus asynchronous music during cycling. 2014.
  8. Karageorghis CI, Terry PC, Lane AM, Bishop DT, Priest D-l. The BASES Expert Statement on use of music in exercise. Journal of sports sciences. 2012;30(9):953-6.
  9. Anshel MH, Marisi DQ. Effect of music and rhythm on physical performance. Research Quarterly American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 1978;49(2):109-13.
  10. Karageorghis CI, Terry PC. The psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: A review. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1997;20(1):54.
  11. LIM HB. Psychophysiological Effects of Synchronous versus Asynchronous Music during Cycling. , Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise. 2015;46(1):1.
  12. Szmedra L, Bacharach D. Effect of music on perceived exertion, plasma lactate, norepinephrine and cardiovascular hemodynamics during treadmill running. International journal of sports medicine. 1998;19(01):32-7.
  13. Bacon C, Myers T, Karageorghis C. Effect of music-movement synchrony on exercise oxygen consumption. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2012;52(4):359.
  14. Terry PC, Karageorghis CI, Saha AM, D’Auria S. Effects of synchronous music on treadmill running among elite triathletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2012;15(1):52-7.
  15. Karageorghis CI, Jones L, Priest D-L, Akers RI, Clarke A, Perry JM, et al. Revisiting the relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 2011;82(2):274-84.
  16. Haas F, Distenfeld S, Axen K. Effects of perceived musical rhythm on respiratory pattern. Journal of applied physiology. 1986;61(3):1185-91.
  17. Jasinskas C, Wilson B, Hoare J. Entrainment of breathing rate to movement frequency during work at two intensities. Respiration Physiology. 1980;42(3):199-209.
  18. Mohammadzadeh H, Tartibiyan B, Ahmadi A. The effects of music on the perceived exertion rate and performance of trained and untrained individuals during progressive exercise. Facta Universitatis-Series: Physical Education and Sport. 2008;6(1):67-74.
  19. Oliver SJ, Laing SJ, Wilson S, Bilzon JL, Walters R, Walsh NP. Salivary immunoglobulin A response at rest and after exercise following a 48 h period of fluid and/or energy restriction. British journal of nutrition. 2007;97(6):1109-16.
  20. Brolinson PG, Elliott D. Exercise and the immune system. Clinics in sports medicine. 2007;26(3):311-9.
  21. Charnetski CJ, Brennan Jr FX, Harrison JF. Effect of music and auditory stimuli on secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1998;87(3_suppl):1163-70.
  22. Suzuki M, Kanamori M, Nagasawa S, Tokiko I, Takayuki S. Music therapy‐induced changes in behavioral evaluations, and saliva chromogranin A and immunoglobulin A concentrations in elderly patients with senile dementia. Geriatrics & gerontology international. 2007;7(1):61-71.
  23. Fancourt D, Ockelford A, Belai A. The psychoneuroimmunological effects of music: A systematic review and a new model. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2014;36:15-26.
  24. Kuhn D. The effects of active and passive participation in musical activity on the immune system as measured by salivary immunoglobulin A (SlgA). Journal of Music Therapy. 2002;39(1):30-9.
  25. De Manzano Ö, Theorell T, Harmat L, Ullén F. The psychophysiology of flow during piano playing. Emotion. 2010;10(3):301.
  26. Potter RF, Choi J. The effects of auditory structural complexity on attitudes, attention, arousal, and memory. Media psychology. 2006;8(4):395-419.
  27. Hjortskov N, Rissén D, Blangsted AK, Fallentin N, Lundberg U, Søgaard K. The effect of mental stress on heart rate variability and blood pressure during computer work. European journal of applied physiology. 2004;92(1-2):84-9.
  28. Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Glucose administration, heart rate and cognitive performance: effects of increasing mental effort. Psychopharmacology. 2000;149(1):63-71.
  29. Laumann K, Gärling T, Stormark KM. Selective attention and heart rate responses to natural and urban environments. Journal of environmental psychology. 2003;23(2):125-34.
  30. Gentili RJ, Rietschel JC, Jaquess KJ, Lo L-C, Prevost CM, Miller MW, et al., editors. Brain biomarkers based assessment of cognitive workload in pilots under various task demands. 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 2014: IEEE.
  31. Fan Y, Tang Y-Y, Ma Y, Posner MI. Mucosal immunity modulated by integrative meditation in a dose-dependent fashion. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2010;16(2):151-5.
  32. Rahne T, Ziese M, Rostalski D, Mühler R. Logatome discrimination in cochlear implant users: subjective tests compared to the mismatch negativity. TheScientificWorldJOURNAL. 2010;10:329-39.
  33. Ying L, Fu S, Qian X, Sun X. Effects of mental workload on long-latency auditory-evoked-potential, salivary cortisol, and immunoglobulin A. Neuroscience letters. 2011;491(1):31-4.
  34. Gonneke Willemsen CR, Sam McKeever, Douglas Carroll. Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular activity during mental arithmetic: effects of task difficulty and task order. Biological Psychology 2000;52:14.
  35. CHRISTOPHER RING DC, JOHAN HOVING, JOHN ORMEROD, LESLEY K. HARRISON, & MARK DRAYSON. Effects of competition, exercise, and mental stress on secretory immunity. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2005;23(5):7.
  36. Caputo F, Stella SG, Mello MTd, Denadai BS. Indexes of power and aerobic capacity obtained in cycle ergometry and treadmill running: comparisons between sedentary, runners, cyclists and triathletes. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte. 2003;9(4):231-7.
  37. Kelman G, Watson A. EFFECT OF ADDED DEAD‐SPACE ON PULMONARY VENTILATION DURING SUB‐MAXIMAL, STEADY‐STATE EXERCISE. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology and Cognate Medical Sciences: Translation and Integration. 1973;58(4):305-13.
  38. Kay J, Petersen ES, Vejby-Christensen H. Breathing in man during steady‐state exercise on the bicycle at two pedalling frequencies, and during treadmill walking. The Journal of physiology. 1975;251(3):645-56.
  39. Bechbache R, Chow H, Duffin J, Orsini E. The effects of hypercapnia, hypoxia, exercise and anxiety on the pattern of breathing in man. The Journal of physiology. 1979;293(1):285-300.
  40. Bannister R, Cunningham D, Douglas C. The carbon dioxide stimulus to breathing in severe exercise. The Journal of physiology. 1954;125(1):90.
  41. Boggs DF. Interactions between locomotion and ventilation in tetrapods. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 2002;133(2):269-88.
  42. Bramble DM, Carrier DR. Running and breathing in mammals. Science. 1983;219(4582):251-6.
  43. Dempsey JA, Adams L, Ainsworth DM, Fregosi RF, Gallagher CG, Guz A, et al. Airway, lung, and respiratory muscle function during exercise. Comprehensive Physiology. 2010:448-514.
  44. Bear MF, Connors BW, Paradiso MA. Neuroscience: past, present, and future. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain 3rd ed Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2007:P19.
  45. Dickinson PS. Interactions among neural networks for behavior. Current opinion in neurobiology. 1995;5(6):792-8.
  46. Eldridge FL, Millhorn DE, Waldrop TG. Exercise hyperpnea and locomotion: parallel activation from the hypothalamus. Science. 1981;211(4484):844-6.
  47. Morin D, Viala D. Coordinations of locomotor and respiratory rhythms in vitro are critically dependent on hindlimb sensory inputs. Journal of Neuroscience. 2002;22(11):4756-65.