نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی Released under CC BY 4.0 license I Open Access I

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی ، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی ، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

3 دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

10.22059/jsb.2022.332816.1493

چکیده

مصرف سیگار به بیماری و ناتوانی و مرگ‌ومیر زودرس منجر می‌شود. تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر 6 هفته تمرین تنفسی بر کربوکسی هموگلوبین (COHb)، حجم متوسط پلاکتی (MPV)، تعداد پلاکت (PLT)، لاکتات و سطح اشباع اکسیژن (SpO2)، و برخی شاخص‌های همودینامیکی مانند ضربان قلب و فشار خون و VO2max افراد سیگاری انجام گرفت.
در تحقیق نیمه‌تجربی حاضر 20 مرد سیگاری به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب و به‌صورت تصادفی به دو گروه تمرین (10=n) و کنترل(10=n) تقسیم شدند. تمرین تنفسی به مدت 6 هفته، 5 جلسه در هفته، دو بار در روز انجام گرفت. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل آماری داده‌ها از آزمون آنکوا برای بررسی تفاوت بین‌گروهی استفاده شد (05/0>P). نتایج نشان داد که 6 هفته مداخلۀ تمرین تنفسی موجب کاهش معنادار COHb (001/0=P)، MPV (001/0=P)، PLT (001/0=P)، فشارخون سیستولی (008/0=P) و دیاستولی (03/0=P) و ضربان قلب (001/0=P) و افزایش معنادار SpO2 (001/0=P) در گروه تمرین در مقایسه با گروه کنترل شد. تفاوت معناداری در شاخص تودة بدنی، حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی و سطح لاکتات خون بین دو گروه مشاهده نشد (05/0<P). براساس نتایج، اجرای تمرین تنفسی توسط افراد سیگاری با توجه به نتایج مطلوب می‌تواند در حفظ و ارتقای سلامتی آنها و کاهش عوارض ناشی از مصرف سیگار مفید باشد.
مصرف سیگار به بیماری و ناتوانی و مرگ‌ومیر زودرس منجر می‌شود. تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر 6 هفته تمرین تنفسی بر کربوکسی هموگلوبین (COHb)، حجم متوسط پلاکتی (MPV)، تعداد پلاکت (PLT)، لاکتات و سطح اشباع اکسیژن (SpO2)، و برخی شاخص‌های همودینامیکی مانند ضربان قلب و فشار خون و VO2max افراد سیگاری انجام گرفت.
در تحقیق نیمه‌تجربی حاضر 20 مرد سیگاری به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب و به‌صورت تصادفی به دو گروه تمرین (10=n) و کنترل(10=n) تقسیم شدند. تمرین تنفسی به مدت 6 هفته، 5 جلسه در هفته، دو بار در روز انجام گرفت. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل آماری داده‌ها از آزمون آنکوا برای بررسی تفاوت بین‌گروهی استفاده شد (05/0>P). نتایج نشان داد که 6 هفته مداخلۀ تمرین تنفسی موجب کاهش معنادار COHb (001/0=P)، MPV (001/0=P)، PLT (001/0=P)، فشارخون سیستولی (008/0=P) و دیاستولی (03/0=P) و ضربان قلب (001/0=P) و افزایش معنادار SpO2 (001/0=P) در گروه تمرین در مقایسه با گروه کنترل شد. تفاوت معناداری در شاخص تودة بدنی، حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی و سطح لاکتات خون بین دو گروه مشاهده نشد (05/0<P). براساس نتایج، اجرای تمرین تنفسی توسط افراد سیگاری با توجه به نتایج مطلوب می‌تواند در حفظ و ارتقای سلامتی آنها و کاهش عوارض ناشی از مصرف سیگار مفید باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of six weeks of breathing exercise training on carboxyhemoglobin, lactate, platelet count and mean platelet volume and some hemodynamic variable in men smokers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahim Noruzian 1
  • Azam Zarneshan 2
  • Karim Azali Alamdari 3

1 MSc Candidate of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Assistant Professor in Sport Physiology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Associate Professor in Sport Physiology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Smoking leads to disease, disability and premature death. This research aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of breathing exercise on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet count (PLT), lactate and oxygen saturation level (SpO2), and some hemodynamic indices such as heart rate, blood pressure and VO2max of smokers. In this quasi-experimental research, 20 male smokers were selected by targeted sampling and randomly divided into two exercise (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. Breathing exercise was done twice a day for six weeks, 5 sessions per week. For statistical analysis of data, ANCOVA test was used to examine the between groups differences (P<0.05). The results showed that 6 weeks of breathing exercise intervention significantly reduced COHb (P=0.001), MPV (P=0.001), PLT (P=0.001), systolic (P=0.008) and diastolic (P=0.03) blood pressure and heart rate (P=0.001) and a significant increase in SpO2 (P=0.001) in the training group compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in body mass index, maximum oxygen consumption and blood lactate level between the two groups (P<0.05). According to the results, performing breathing exercises by smokers can be useful in maintaining and improving their health and reducing the side effects caused by smoking.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Breathing exercise
  • COHb
  • Hemodynamics
  • lactate
  • MPV
  • Vo2max
  • smokers
1- Sitorus RJ, Purba IG, Natalia M, Tantrakarnapa K. The Effect of Smoking on Carbon Monoxide Respiration among Active Smokers in Palembang City, Indonesia. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional (National Public Health Journal). 2021;16(2):108-12.
2- Dwiyanto Y, Wahyudin MD, Isnaani RM, Ernawati D, Firmansyah D, Haryanti N, et al. The Effect of Smoking on Oxygen Saturation Level of Patients Covid-19. Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Keperawatan Indonesia. 2021;11(02):80-3.
3- Nemukula M, Mogale MA, Mkhondo HB, Bekker L. Association of Carboxyhemoglobin Levels with Peripheral Arterial Disease in Chronic Smokers Managed at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(15):5581.
4- Hampson NB. Carboxyhemoglobin: a primer for clinicians. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2018;45(2):165-71.
5- Hering D, Somers VK, Kara T, Kucharska W, Jurak P, Bieniaszewski L, et al. Sympathetic neural responses to smoking are age dependent. Journal of hypertension. 2006;24(4):691-5.
6- Ingemann-Hansen T, Halkjær-Kristensen JJSJoc, investigation l. Cigarette smoking and maximal oxygen consumption rate in humans. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1977;37(2):143-8.
7- Malenica M, Prnjavorac B, Bego T, Dujic T, Semiz S, Skrbo S, et al. Effect of cigarette smoking on haematological parameters in healthy population. Med Arch. 2017;71(2):132.
8- Islam MM, Amin MR, Begum S, Akther D, Rahman A. Total count of white blood cells in adult male smokers. Journal of Bangladesh Society of Physiologist. 2007;2:49-53.
9- Ahmadizad S, Malekian E, Rahmani H. Exercise and Training Effects on Platelet Activation and Function: A Review Article. Sport Physiology & Management Investigations. 2019;11(43):17-38.
10- Parmet S, Lynm C, Glass RM. Smoking and the Heart. JAMA. 2008;299(17):2112-.
11- Swaminathan A, Amitkumar K, Ganapathy S, Ayyavoo SJNJPPP. Evaluation of the impact of cigarette smoking on platelet parameters. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2015;5:426-30.
12- Bloomer RJ, Fisher-Wellman K. The role of exercise in minimizing postprandial oxidative stress in cigarette smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2009;11(1):3-11.
13- Nikniaz L, Ghojazadeh M, Nateghian H, Nikniaz Z, Farhangi MA, Pourmanaf H. The interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory factors, anti-inflammatory proteins, and lung function in male smokers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2021;13(1):1-8.
14- Nobari H, Nejad HA, Kargarfard M, Mohseni S, Suzuki K, Carmelo Adsuar J, et al. The Effect of Acute Intense Exercise on Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Smokers and Non-smokers. Biomolecules. 2021;11(2):171.
15- Kim CS, Kim MK, Jung HY, Kim MJ. Effects of exercise training intensity on cardiac autonomic regulation in habitual smokers. Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology. 2017;22(5):e12434.
16- Singh V, Jani H, John V, Singh P, Joseley T. Effects of upper body resistance training on pulmonary functions in sedentary male smokers. Lung India: official organ of Indian Chest Society. 2011;28(3):169.
17- Jha RK, Li H-PJIJoSIT. Effects of alternate nostril breathing on quitting smoking. Ann Afr Med. 2017;6(4):329-37.
18- Klinsophon T, Thaveeratitham P, Sitthipornvorakul E, Janwantanakul PJBrn. Effect of exercise type on smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Biomed Central research notes. 2017;10(1):442.
19- McClernon FJ, Westman EC, Rose JEJAB. The effects of controlled deep breathing on smoking withdrawal symptoms in dependent smokers. Addict Behav. 2004;29(4):765-72.
20- Shojaie M, Moradi L, Shakeri N, Asadi S, Shojaei M. Effects of Strength Training and C4 Supplementation on Strength Performance, Arterial Oxygen Saturation and blood Lactate level in Strength Trained Men. Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport Physiology. 2020;7(2):89-95.
21- Ghahramani M, Kaikhosro Doulatyari P, Rouzbahani M. Investigation Effect of Exercise and Physical Activity on Cardiac Troponins: A Systematic Review. Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport Physiology. 2021;8(1):12-20.
22- Daglioglu O, Mendes B, Bostanci O, Ozdal M, Demir T. The effect of short-term exercise on oxygen saturation in soccer players. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2013;7(10):446-9.
23- Bichay AAF, Ramírez JM, Núñez VM, Lancho C, Poblador MS, Lancho JL. Efficacy of treadmill exercises on arterial blood oxygenation, oxygen consumption and walking distance in healthy elderly people: a controlled trial. BMC geriatrics. 2016;16(1):110.
24- Ghio AJ, Case MW, Soukup JM. Heme oxygenase activity increases after exercise in healthy volunteers. Free radical research. 2018;52(2):267-72.
25- Zavorsky GS, Smoliga JM, Longo LD, Uhranowsky KA, Cadman CR, Duffin J, et al. Increased carbon monoxide clearance during exercise in humans. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2012;44(11):2118-24.
26- Lassila R, Laustiola K. Physical exercise provokes platelet desensitization in men who smoke cigarettes-involvement of sympathoadrenergic mechanisms-a study of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for smoking. Thrombosis research. 1988;51(2):145-55.
27- Russo MA, Santarelli DM, O’Rourke DJB. The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human. Breathe (Sheffield, England) 2017;13(4):298-309.
28- Amini M, Gholami M, Aabed Natanzi H, Shakeri N, Haddad H. Effect of diaphragmatic respiratory training on some pulmonary indexes in older people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019;14(3):332-41.
29- SAH P. The Effect of Controlled Breathing Exercises on Anxiety and Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Military Caring Sciences Journal. 2020;7(2):96-105.
30- Atkins P, Lempke R. The effect of hypoxia on the platelet count. Journal of British Surgery. 1970;57(8):583-6.
31- Zarneshan A, Safaee N, Esmealy L, Esmealy B. Effects of Combined Stretching and Breathing Exercise on Hemodynamic and Oxygenation Changes in Patients Undergoing CABG Surgery. Journal of Health and Care. 2021;22(4):327-38.
32- Seo K, Park SH, Park K. Effects of diaphragm respiration exercise on pulmonary function of male smokers in their twenties. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2015;27(7):2313-5.
33- Naik GS, Gaur G, Pal GJIjoy. Effect of modified slow breathing exercise on perceived stress and basal cardiovascular parameters.
International journal of yoga. 2018;11(1):53.
34- Carranque GA, Maldonado EF, Vera FM, Manzaneque JM, Blanca MJ, Soriano G, et al. Hematological and biochemical modulation in regular yoga practitioners. International Journal of Physiology, Nutrition and Physical Education. 2012;23(2).
35- Jun H-J, Kim K-J, Nam K-W, Kim C-HJJopts. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers. Journal of physical therapy science. 2016;28(6):1681-5.
36- Perci P, Kanchana KJAJoNE, Research. Effect of Deep Breathing Exercise on selected Physiological Parameters among patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome at selected Hospital, Coimbatore. 2019;9(4):566-9.
37- Nepal O, Pokharel B, Khanal K, Mallik S, Kapoor B, Koju RJKUMJ. Relationship between arterial oxygen saturation and hematocrit, and effect of slow deep breathing on oxygen saturation in Himalayan high altitude populations. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2012;10(3):30-4.
38- Mohammadi BolbolanAbad H, Yazdan Nik AR, MirMohammad Sadeghi M, Khalifeh Zadeh AJJoRDiN, Midwifery. The Effect of Deep Breathing Exercise on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass Graftingg (CABG).    J Res Dev Nurs Midw 10:99-104.
39- Barzegari H, CHOOBINEH S, Akbarnejad A, Rahimzadeh H. The Effect of Endurance Training on Some Inflammatory Markers in Male Smokers. Sport Physiology & Management Investigations. 2018;10(2):21-30.
40- Seale JP, Shellenberger S, Velasquez MM, Boltri JM, Okosun I, Guyinn M, et al. Impact of vital signs screening & clinician prompting on alcohol and tobacco screening and intervention rates: a pre-post intervention comparison. BMC Family Practice volume. 2010;11(1):18.
41- Kumar N, Sharma S. Effect of Tobacco Chewing on VO2 max. Med Sportiva. 2011;7:3.
42- Abid N, Rao AR, Babar MN, Ansari M, Awan WA. Effect of deep breathing exercises in healthy smokers: A pilot study. JPMA The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2020;70(7):1209-13.
43- Zarneshan A. Effects of Regular Aerobic with Nasal Breathing Exercise Training on Olfactory Rehabilitation in Asthmatic Patients with Chronic Rhino Sinusitis. Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences & Research. 2020;7(4):178-83.
44- Schimmel J, George N, Schwarz J, Yousif S, Suner S, Hack JB. Carboxyhemoglobin levels induced by cigarette smoking outdoors in smokers. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2018;14(1):68-73.
45- Pan K-T, Leonardi GS, Croxford B. Factors contributing to CO uptake and elimination in the body: A critical review. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;17(2):528.
46- Levy B, Desebbe O, Montemont C, Gibot S. Increased aerobic glycolysis through β2 stimulation is a common mechanism involved in lactate formation during shock states. Shock. 2008;30(4):417-21.
47- Sinha AN, Deepak D, Gusain VS. Assessment of the effects of pranayama/alternate nostril breathing on the parasympathetic nervous system in young adults. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2013;7(5):821.
48- Naik GS, Gaur G, Pal G. Effect of modified slow breathing exercise on perceived stress and basal cardiovascular parameters. International journal of yoga. 2018;11(1):53.
49- Mourya M, Mahajan AS, Singh NP, Jain AK. Effect of slow-and fast-breathing exercises on autonomic functions in patients with essential hypertension. The journal of alternative and complementary medicine. 2009;15(7):711-7.
50- Dhungel KU, Malhotra V, Sarkar D, Prajapati R. Effect of alternate nostril breathing exercise on cardiorespiratory functions. Nepal Med Coll J. 2008;10(1):25-7.
51- Chebbo M, Duez C, Alessi MC, Chanez P, Gras D. Platelets: a potential role in chronic respiratory diseases? European Respiratory Review. 2021;30(161).
52- Weyrich AS, Zimmerman GA. Platelets in lung biology. Annual review of physiology. 2013;75:569-91.
53- Fahrizal D, Santoso TB, editors. The Effect of Buteyko Breathing Technique in Improving Cardiorespiratory Endurance2017: Proceedings of ISETH 2017 (The 3rd International Conference on Science ….
54- Dallam GM, McClaran SR, Cox DG, Foust CP. Effect of nasal versus oral breathing on Vo2max and physiological economy in recreational runners following an extended period spent using nasally restricted breathing. International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science. 2018;6(2):22-9.