تأثیر تمرین راه رفتن با علامت‌گذاری شنیداری بر هم‌انقباضی عضلات اندام تحتانی سالمندان سالم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

3 استادیار رفتارحرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران بابلسر، ایران

4 استادیار بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

چکیده

سالمندان سطوح بالایی از هم‌انقباضی را در عضلات اندام تحتانی نشان می‌دهند که بیشتر برای جبران زوال اندام‌ها و کنترل حرکتی بهتر ظاهر می‌شود. راه رفتن عادی و بی‌نقص علاوه‌بر سلامت عوامل عصب عضله، به سلامت شناختی و نیز خودکاری حرکت بستگی دارد؛ بنابراین می‌توان با به چالش کشیدن منابع اجرایی از طریق علامت‌گذاری ریتمیک شنیداری توجه فرد را به بیرون جلب کرد و فعالیت روزمره‌ای چون راه رفتن را به خودکار و بدون تمرکز تغییر داد. 30 مرد سالمند واجد شرایط 60 تا 75 ساله به‌طور داوطلبانه انتخاب شدند و در دو گروه کنترل (گروه بدون تمرین و گروه راه رفتن بدون علامت‌گذاری شنیداری) و 1 گروه تجربی (راه رفتن با علامت‌گذاری شنیداری) قرار گرفتند. برای ارزیابی هم‌انقباضی عضله، الگوی فعالیت عضلات اندام تحتانی از جمله نعلی، ساقی قدامی، پهن داخلی، پهن خارجی و دوسررانی طی 90 ثانیه راه رفتن با سرعت ترجیحی در پیش و پس‌آزمون بررسی شد. تمرینات به مدت 6 هفته، 3 جلسه در هفته و هر جلسه 20 دقیقه انجام گرفت. تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از مدل آنالیز کوواریانس و آزمون ناپارامتریک بوت استرپ در سطح معناداری 05/0 انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که پس از 18 جلسه تمرین، هم‌انقباضی در عضلات همکار بیشتر و عضلات موافق و مخالف کمتر شده، اما این یافته‌ها از نظر آماری، معنادار نبوده است (05/0<P). این نتایج نشان می‌دهد که علامت‌گذاری شنیداری حین تمرین راه رفتن، ممکن است تأثیر چندانی بر فعالیت هم‌انقباضی عضلات در سالمندی اولیه نداشته باشد که احتمالاً در اثر عدم تغییرات بارز شناختی در این دوره است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Walking Training with Auditory Cueing on Co-Contraction of Lower Limb Muscles in Healthy Elderly

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadise Hoseini 1
  • Zia Fallah Mohammadi 2
  • mojgan memarmoghaddam 3
  • Seyyed Esmaeel Hosseini Nejad 4
1 MSc of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
4 Assistant Professor of Sport Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

The elderly often exhibit high levels of co-contraction in lower extremity muscles which may appear to compensate for deteriorations of organs and better motor control. Normal gait depends on both the neuromuscular system and cognitive health and motion automation. Thus, subjects’ attention can be attracted to outer environment by challenging executive resources through rhythmic auditory cueing and thus daily activity such as gait can change to automatic mode. 30 qualified elderly men (age range of 60 to 75 years old) were voluntarily selected and were divided into two control groups (detraining group and walking without auditory cueing) and one experimental group (walking with auditory cueing). The pattern of lower limb muscles activity including soleus, tibialis anterior, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during 90s walking at preferred speed was investigated in pretest and posttest to evaluate muscle co-contraction. This program was performed for 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20 minutes each session. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and nonparametric Bootstrap test at the significance level of 0.05. The results showed an increase in co-contraction in the synergic muscles but a reduction in agonist–antagonist muscles after 18 sessions of program, but these findings were not statistically significant (P˃0.05). These results indicated that auditory cueing during gait could not influence muscle co-contraction in early aging which is probably due to the lack of evident cognitive changes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Auditory rhythmic cueing
  • Co-Contraction
  • Early aging
  • Electromyography
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