عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high intensity interval training in heat environment on aerobic and anaerobic performance in active men. 24 active university students were divided into three groups: training in the heat environment (HE) (n=8), training in natural environment (NE) (n=8) and control (n=8) as matched subjects according to VO2max estimation. HE and NE subjects trained for two consecutive weeks in 12 training sessions. Each session included 5 sets of 150 seconds of running on treadmill with 85-90% of vVO2max with 150 seconds of active recovery between each two sets with 50% of vVO2max. Before and after the training protocol, subjects performed Tmax test and maximal incremental test on a treadmill to evaluate the aerobic performance and Wingate test was used to assess anaerobic performance in an environment with 23±1° temperature and 35±5% natural humidity. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA was used (P<0.05). Results showed that high-intensity interval training in a heat environment significantly increased vVO2max, Tmax, maximum distance, speed of aerobic power and mean anaerobic power (14.3%, 16.3%, 33.4%, 40.1% respectively) compared to the NE group. But the peak anaerobic power significantly increased (15%) only compared to the control group (P<0.05). Also, lactate significantly reduced only in HE group (-12.6%) but the differece was not significant in inter-group comparisons (P<0.05). The control group showed no significant differences in indices (P<0.05). In general, the results showed that two weeks of high-intensity interval training in a heat environment significantly enhanced the aerobic performance and some anaerobic performance indices compared to the natural environment
2. ستاریفرد، صادق؛ گایینی، عباسعلی؛ چوبینه، سیروس (1391). «تغییرات کورتیزول و لاکتات خون ورزشکاران پس از یک جلسه فعالیت ورزشی در شرایط دمایی سرد، گرم و طبیعی»، مجلۀ غدد درونریز و متابولیسم ایران. ص 177-169.
3. فرزاد، بابک؛ قراخانلو، رضا؛ بیاتی، مهدی؛ آقاعلینژاد، حمید؛ بهرامینژاد، مرتضی؛ محرابیان، فرهاد (1390). «اثر یک دوره تمرین تناوبی شدید بر منتخبی از شاخصهای عملکرد هوازی، بیهوازی و هماتولوژیکی ورزشکاران»، پژوهش در علوم ورزشی، ص 88-69.
4. Aleksander Tayka TP. The influence of ambent temperature on power anaerobic thershold determinedbased on blood lactate concentration and myoelectric signals. 2009.
5. Astorino T, Baker J, Brock S, Dalleck L, Goulet E, Gotshall R, et al. Physiological Responses of Distance Runners during Normal and Warm Conditions. Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline. 2013;16(2).
6. Barnett C, Carey M, Proietto J, Cerin E, Febbraio M, Jenkins D. Muscle metabolism during sprint exercise in man: influence of sprint training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2004;7(3):314-22.
7. Bartlett JD, Close GL, MacLaren DP, Gregson W, Morton JP. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence. Journal of sports sciences. 2011;29(6):547-53.
8. Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ. Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans. Journal of applied physiology. 2005;98(6):1985-90.
9. Chen T-I, Tsai P-H, Lin J-H, Lee N-Y, Liang M. Effect of short-term heat acclimation on endurance time and skin blood flow in trained athletes. 2013.
10. Dupont G, Akakpo K, Berthoin S. The effect of in-season, high-intensity interval training in soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2004;18(3):9-584
11. Esfarjani F, Laursen PB. Manipulating high-intensity interval training: Effects on, the lactate threshold and 3000m running performance in moderately trained males. Journal of science and medicine in sport. 2007;10(1):27-35.
12. Febbraio M, Snow R, Stathis C, Hargreaves M, Carey M. Effect of heat stress on muscle energy metabolism during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1994;77(6):2827-31.
13. Febbraio MA, Snow R, Hargreaves M, Stathis C, Martin I, Carey M. Muscle metabolism during exercise and heat stress in trained men: effect of acclimation. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1994;76(2):589-97.
14. Gibala MJ, Little JP, Van Essen M, Wilkin GP, Burgomaster KA, Safdar A, et al. Short‐term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. The Journal of physiology. 2006;575(3):901-11.
15. Horowitz M, Parnes S, Hasin Y. Mechanical and metabolic performance of the rat heart: effects of combined stress of heat acclimation and swimming training. Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology. 1993;4(1-2):139-56.
16. Horowitz M, Shimoni Y, Parnes S, Gotsman M, Hasin Y. Heat acclimation- Cardiac performance of isolated rat heart. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1986;60(1):9-13.
17. Jacobs I, Esbjornsson M, Sylven C, Holm I, Jansson E. Sprint training effects on muscle myoglobin, enzymes, fiber types, and blood lactate. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987;19(4):368-74.
18. Kirwan JP, Costill DL, Kuipers H, Burrell MJ, Fink WJ, Kovaleski JE, et al. Substrate utilization in leg muscle of men after heat acclimation. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1987;63(1):31-5.
19. Laursen PB, Shing CM, Peake JM, Coombes JS, Jenkins DG. Interval training program optimization in highly trained endurance cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2002;34(11):1801-7.
20. Laursen PB, Shing CM, Peake JM, Coombes JS, Jenkins DG. Influence of high-intensity interval training on adaptations in well-trained cyclists. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2005;19(3):527-33.
21. Levy E, Hasin Y, Navon G. Chronic heat improves mechanical and metabolic response of trained rat heart on ischemia and reperfusion. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 1997;272(5):H2085-H94.
22. Linossier M-T, Denis C, Dormois D, Geyssant A, Lacour J. Ergometric and metabolic adaptation to a 5-s sprint training programme. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1993;67(5):408-14.
23. Lorenzo S, Halliwill JR, Sawka MN, Minson CT. Heat acclimation improves exercise performance. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010;109(4):1140-7.
24. Lorenzo S, Minson CT. Heat acclimation improves cutaneous vascular function and sweating in trained cyclists. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010;109(6):1736-43.
25. MacDougall JD, Hicks AL, MacDonald JR, McKelvie RS, Green HJ, Smith KM. Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1998;84(6):2138-42.
26. Mündel T, Cox JP, Jones DA. Exercise, heat stress and the interleukin-6 response: support for temperature-mediated neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms. Medicina Sportiva. 2010;14(3):96-102.
27. Parra J, Cadefau J, Rodas G, Amigo N, Cusso R. The distribution of rest periods affects performance and adaptations of energy metabolism induced by high-intensity training in human muscle. Acta physiologica scandinavica. 2000;169(2):157-66.
28. Rodas G, Ventura JL, Cadefau JA, Cussó R, Parra J. A short training programme for the rapid improvement of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. European journal of applied physiology. 2000;82(5-6):480-6.
29. Rowell LB, Brengelmann GL, Blackmon JR, Twiss RD, Kusumi FO. Splanchnic blood flow and metabolism in heat-stressed man. Journal of applied physiology. 1968;24(4):475-84.
30. Sawka M, Pandolf K, Avellini B, Shapiro Y. Does heat acclimation lower the rate of metabolism elicited by muscular exercise? Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. 1983;54(1):27-31.
31. Sawka MN, Leon LR, Montain SJ, Sonna LA. Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress. Comprehensive Physiology. 2011.
32. Sawka MN, Young AJ, Cadarette BS, Levine L, Pandolf KB. Influence of heat stress and acclimation on maximal aerobic power. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1985;53(4):294-8.
33. Sawna MN, Coyle EF. 6 Influence of Body Water and Blood Volume on Thermoregulation and Exercise Performance in the Heat. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. 1999;27(1):167-218.
34. Tucker R, Rauch L, Harley YX, Noakes TD. Impaired exercise performance in the heat is associated with an anticipatory reduction in skeletal muscle recruitment. Pflügers Archiv. 2004;448(4):442-30.
35. Weledji E, Assob J, Verla V, Meli C. How to Improve Performance in Sport ,a Review. Physiology and Pharmacology Advances. 2013:131-8.
36. Young AJ SM, Levine L, Cadarette BS, Pandolf KB. Skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise is influenced by heat acclimation. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1985.