تأثیر یک جلسه فعالیت هوازی پیشرونده و تناوبی شدید، بر تعداد لکوسیت‌ها و پلاکت‌های خون مردان غیرورزشکار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری تخصصی، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 دکتری تخصصی، استاد، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دکتری تخصصی، دانشیار، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

 
هدف مطالعۀ حاضر مقایسۀ تأثیر یک جلسه فعالیت هوازی پیشرونده و تناوبی شدید بر تعداد لکوسیت‌ها و پلاکت‌های خون مردان غیرورزشکار بود. در این مطالعه 11 مرد جوان غیرورزشکار به اجرای یک جلسه فعالیت هوازی پیشرونده و یک جلسه فعالیت تناوبی شدید پرداختند. قبل، بلافاصله و دو ساعت پس از اجرای فعالیت، تعداد لکوسیت‌ها، نوتروفیل‌ها، لنفوسیت‌ها، مونوسیت‌ها و پلاکت‌ها شمارش شد. از آزمون‌های آماری آنالیز واریانس با اندازه‌های تکراری، تعقیبی LSD و t مستقل استفاده شد. شمار لکوسیت‌ها بلافاصله پس از اجرای هر دو فعالیت افزایش یافت (05/0P≤). شمار نوتروفیل‌ها بلافاصله پس از هر دو نوع فعالیت افزایش یافت (05/0P≤). تعداد لنفوسیت‌ها نیز بلافاصله پس از هر دو نوع فعالیت افزایش یافت و دو ساعت پس از اجرا با کاهش، به پایین‌تر از سطوح استراحتی رسید (05/0≤ P). شمار مونوسیت‌ها و پلاکت‌ها بلافاصله پس از اجرای هر دو فعالیت افزایش یافت (05/0P≤).به‌نظر می‌رسداجرای یک جلسه فعالیت هوازی پیشرونده و تناوبی شدید، می‌تواند موجب افزایش معنادار مقادیر سلول‌های سیستم ایمنی و گردش خون شود و اختلاف معناداری بین این دو نوع فعالیت در میزان تحریک سلول‌های سیستم ایمنی وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of a Single Bout of Progressive Aerobic and High Intensity Interval Exercise on Leukocytes and Blood Platelets of Non-Athlete Men

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi yadegari 1
  • ali asghar ravasi 2
  • siroos choobineh 3
1 PhD of Exercise Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
BENSCHOP, R. J., RODRIGUEZ-FEUERHAHN, M. & SCHEDLOWSKI, M. 1996. Catecholamine-induced
    leukocytosis: early observations, current research, and future directions. Brain, behavior, and
    immunity, 10, 77-91.
9.  CEDDIA, M. A., PRICE, E. A., KOHLMEIER, C. K., EVANS, J. K., LU, Q., MCAULEY, E. & WOODS, J. A. 1999.
      Differential leukocytosis and lymphocyte mitogenic response to acute maximal exercise in the young
      and old. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31, 829.
10. GABRIEL, H. & KINDERMANN, W. 1997. The acute immune response to exercise: What does it mean?
       International journal of sports medicine, 18, 28.
11. GIMENEZ, M., MOHAN-KUMAR, T., HUMBERT, J. C., DE TALANCE, N. & BUISINE, J. 1986. Leukocyte,
       lymphocyte and platelet response to dynamic exercise. European journal of applied physiology and
      occupational physiology, 55, 465-470.
12. GLAISTER, M., HAUCK, H., ABRAHAM, C. S., MERRY, K. L., BEAVER, D., WOODS, B. & MCINNES, G.
      2009. Familiarization, reliability, and comparability of a 40-m maximal shuttle run test. Journal of
       Science and Medicine, 8, 77-82.
13. GREEN, K. J., CROAKER, S. J. & ROWBOTTOM, D. G. 2003. Carbohydrate supplementation and
       exercise-induced changes in T-lymphocyte function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95, 1216-1223.
14. MCFARLIN, B. K. & MITCHELL, J. B. 2003. Exercise in hot and cold environments: differential effects
      on leukocyte number and NK cell activity. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 74, 1231-
       1236.
 
15. MITCHELL, J. B., DUGAS, J. P., MCFARLIN, B. K. & NELSON, M. J. 2002. Effect of exercise, heat stress,
       and hydration on immune cell number and function. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34,
       1941.
16. NIELSEN, H. B. 2003. Lymphocyte responses to maximal exercise: a physiological perspective. Sports
      Medicine, 33, 853-867.
17. NIEMAN, D. C. 1997. Immune response to heavy exertion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82, 1385-
      1394.
18. NIEMAN, D. C., NEHLSEN-CANNARELLA, S. L., DONOHUE, K. M., CHRITTON, D. B. W., HADDOCK, B. L.,
      STOUT, R. O. N. W. & LEE, J. W. 1991. The effects of acute moderate exercise on leukocyte and
       lymphocyte subpopulations. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 23, 578.
19. NIEMAN, D. C. & PEDERSEN, B. K. 1999. Exercise and immune function: recent developments. Sports
      Medicine, 27, 73-80.
20. NIESS, A., FEHRENBACH, E., LEHMANN, R., OPAVSKY, L., JESSE, M., NORTHOFF, H. & DICKHUTH, H. H.
      2003. Impact of elevated ambient temperatures on the acute immune response to intensive
      endurance exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 89, 344-351.
21. PEAKE, J. 2002. Exercise-induced alterations in neutrophil degranulation and respiratory burst
      activity: possible mechanisms of action. Exercise immunology review, 8, 49.
22. PEAKE, J., PEIFFER, J. J., ABBISS, C. R., NOSAKA, K., OKUTSU, M., LAURSEN, P. B. & SUZUKI, K. 2008.
      Body temperature and its effect on leukocyte mobilization, cytokines and markers of neutrophil
      activation during and after exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 102, 391-401.
23. PEDERSEN, B. K. & HOFFMAN-GOETZ, L. 2000. Exercise and the immune system: regulation,
      integration, and adaptation. Physiological reviews, 80, 1055-1081.
24. PYNE, D. B., SMITH, J. A., BAKER, M. S., TELFORD, R. D. & WEIDEMANN, M. J. 2000. Neutrophil
      oxidative activity is differentially affected by exercise intensity and type. Journal of Science and
      Medicine in Sport, 3, 44-54.
25. RALL, L. C., ROUBENOFF, R., CANNON, J. G., ABAD, L. W., DINARELLO, C. A. & MEYDANI, S. N. 1996.
      Effects of progressive resistance training on immune response in aging and chronic inflammation.
       Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28, 1356.
26. ROBSON, P. J., BLANNIN, A., WALSH, N., CASTELL, L. & GLEESON, M. 1999. Effects of exercise
       intensity, duration and recovery on in vitro neutrophil function in male athletes. International
       journal of sports medicine, 20, 128-135.
   
27. RONSEN, O., KJELDSEN-KRAGH, J., HAUG, E., BAHR, R. & PEDERSEN, B. K. 2002. Recovery time affects
      immunoendocrine responses to a second bout of endurance exercise. American Journal of
      Physiology- Cell Physiology, 283, C1612-C1620.
28. SHEPHARD, R. & SHEK, P. 1995. Exercise, aging and immune function. International journal of sports
      medicine, 16, 1-6.
29. SHEPHARD, R. J. 2003. Adhesion molecules, catecholamines and leucocyte redistribution during and
      following exercise. Sports Medicine, 33, 261-284.
30. SHEPHARD, R. J. & SHEK, P. N. 1999. Immune dysfunction as a factor in heat illness. Critical reviews in
       immunology, 19, 285.
31. SMITH, J. 1997. Exercise immunology and neutrophils. International journal of sports medicine, 18,
      46.
32. SMITH, L. L. 2003. Overtraining, excessive exercise, and altered immunity: is this a T helper-1 versus
      T helper-2 lymphocyte response? Sports Medicine, 33, 347-364.
 
33. TANIMURA, Y., SHIMIZU, K., TANABE, K., OTSUKI, T., YAMAUCHI, R., MATSUBARA, Y., IEMITSU, M.,
      MAEDA, S. & AJISAKA, R. 2008. Exercise-induced oxidative DNA damage and lymphocytopenia in
      sedentary young males. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40, 1455.
34. TIMMONS, B. W., TARNOPOLSKY, M. A. & BAR-OR, O. 2004. Immune responses to strenuous exercise
      and carbohydrate intake in boys and men. Pediatric research, 56, 227-234.
35. TVEDE, N., KAPPEL, M., HALKJAER-KRISTENSEN, J., GALBO, H. & PEDERSEN, B. 1993. The effect of
      light, moderate and severe bicycle exercise on lymphocyte subsets, natural and lymphokine
      activated killer cells, lymphocyte proliferative response and interleukin 2 production. International
       journal of  sports medicine, 14, 275-275.
36. VASANKARI, T., KUJALA, U., SARNA, S. & AHOTUPA, M. 1998. Effects of ascorbic acid and
      carbohydrate ingestion on exercise induced oxidative stress. Journal of sports medicine and physical
       fitness, 38, 281-285.
37. WALSH, N. P. & WHITHAM, M. 2006. Exercising in environmental extremes: a greater threat to
       immune function? Sports Medicine, 36, 941-976.
38. WANG, J. S. & LIN, C. T. 2010. Systemic hypoxia promotes lymphocyte apoptosis induced by
       oxidative stress during moderate exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 108, 371-382.
39.  WIGERNAES, I., HOSTMARK, A., KIERULF, P. & STROMME, S. 2000. Active recovery reduces the
       decrease in circulating white blood cells after exercise. International journal of sports medicine, 21,
       608-612.
40. WIGERNÆS, I., HØSTMARK, A. T., STRØMME, S. B., KIERULF, P. & BIRKELAND, K. 2001. Active
       recovery and post-exercise white blood cell count, free fatty acids, and hormones in endurance
       athletes. European journal of applied physiology, 84, 358-366.
41. WOODS, J. A., DAVIS, J., SMITH, J. A. & NIEMAN, D. 1999. Exercise and cellular innate immune
      function. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 31, 57.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Effect of a Single Bout of Progressive Aerobic and High Intensity Interval Exercise on Leukocytes and Blood Platelets of Non-Athlete Men
 
Received: 2013/3/11
Accepted: 2013/10/3
 
 
1. Mehdi Yadegari1  2. Ali Asghar Ravasi 3. Siroos Choobineh
 
1. PhD of Exercise Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2. Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3. Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a single bout of progressive aerobic and high intensity interval exercise on leukocytes and blood platelets of male non-athletes. In this study, 11 young male non-athletes performed a single bout of progressive aerobic exercise and a single bout of high intensity interval exercise. Before, immediately and 2 hours after the exercise, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets were counted. The collected data were analyzed using analysis of variance with repeated measures, LSD post hoc test and independent t test. Leukocytes increased immediately after both activities (P≤0.05). Neutrophils increased immediately after both types of activity (P≤0.05). The number of lymphocytes also increased immediately after both types of activity and with a reduction, they reached below the resting levels 2 hours after the exercise (P≤0.05). The monocytes and platelets increased immediately after both types of activities (P≤0.05). It seems that a single bout of progressive aerobic and high intensity interval exercise can significantly increase the levels of immune cells and blood circulation, and there is no significant difference in the stimulation of immune cells between these two types of exercise. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aerobic exercise
  • Immune system
  • interval exercise
  • Leukocytes

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8. BENSCHOP, R. J., RODRIGUEZ-FEUERHAHN, M. & SCHEDLOWSKI, M. 1996. Catecholamine-induced

    leukocytosis: early observations, current research, and future directions. Brain, behavior, and

    immunity, 10, 77-91.

9.  CEDDIA, M. A., PRICE, E. A., KOHLMEIER, C. K., EVANS, J. K., LU, Q., MCAULEY, E. & WOODS, J. A. 1999.

      Differential leukocytosis and lymphocyte mitogenic response to acute maximal exercise in the young

      and old. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31, 829.

10. GABRIEL, H. & KINDERMANN, W. 1997. The acute immune response to exercise: What does it mean?

       International journal of sports medicine, 18, 28.

11. GIMENEZ, M., MOHAN-KUMAR, T., HUMBERT, J. C., DE TALANCE, N. & BUISINE, J. 1986. Leukocyte,

       lymphocyte and platelet response to dynamic exercise. European journal of applied physiology and

      occupational physiology, 55, 465-470.

12. GLAISTER, M., HAUCK, H., ABRAHAM, C. S., MERRY, K. L., BEAVER, D., WOODS, B. & MCINNES, G.

      2009. Familiarization, reliability, and comparability of a 40-m maximal shuttle run test. Journal of

       Science and Medicine, 8, 77-82.

13. GREEN, K. J., CROAKER, S. J. & ROWBOTTOM, D. G. 2003. Carbohydrate supplementation and

       exercise-induced changes in T-lymphocyte function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95, 1216-1223.

14. MCFARLIN, B. K. & MITCHELL, J. B. 2003. Exercise in hot and cold environments: differential effects

      on leukocyte number and NK cell activity. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 74, 1231-

       1236.

 

15. MITCHELL, J. B., DUGAS, J. P., MCFARLIN, B. K. & NELSON, M. J. 2002. Effect of exercise, heat stress,

       and hydration on immune cell number and function. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34,

       1941.

16. NIELSEN, H. B. 2003. Lymphocyte responses to maximal exercise: a physiological perspective. Sports

      Medicine, 33, 853-867.

17. NIEMAN, D. C. 1997. Immune response to heavy exertion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82, 1385-

      1394.

18. NIEMAN, D. C., NEHLSEN-CANNARELLA, S. L., DONOHUE, K. M., CHRITTON, D. B. W., HADDOCK, B. L.,

      STOUT, R. O. N. W. & LEE, J. W. 1991. The effects of acute moderate exercise on leukocyte and

       lymphocyte subpopulations. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 23, 578.

19. NIEMAN, D. C. & PEDERSEN, B. K. 1999. Exercise and immune function: recent developments. Sports

      Medicine, 27, 73-80.

20. NIESS, A., FEHRENBACH, E., LEHMANN, R., OPAVSKY, L., JESSE, M., NORTHOFF, H. & DICKHUTH, H. H.

      2003. Impact of elevated ambient temperatures on the acute immune response to intensive

      endurance exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 89, 344-351.

21. PEAKE, J. 2002. Exercise-induced alterations in neutrophil degranulation and respiratory burst

      activity: possible mechanisms of action. Exercise immunology review, 8, 49.

22. PEAKE, J., PEIFFER, J. J., ABBISS, C. R., NOSAKA, K., OKUTSU, M., LAURSEN, P. B. & SUZUKI, K. 2008.

      Body temperature and its effect on leukocyte mobilization, cytokines and markers of neutrophil

      activation during and after exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 102, 391-401.

23. PEDERSEN, B. K. & HOFFMAN-GOETZ, L. 2000. Exercise and the immune system: regulation,

      integration, and adaptation. Physiological reviews, 80, 1055-1081.

24. PYNE, D. B., SMITH, J. A., BAKER, M. S., TELFORD, R. D. & WEIDEMANN, M. J. 2000. Neutrophil

      oxidative activity is differentially affected by exercise intensity and type. Journal of Science and

      Medicine in Sport, 3, 44-54.

25. RALL, L. C., ROUBENOFF, R., CANNON, J. G., ABAD, L. W., DINARELLO, C. A. & MEYDANI, S. N. 1996.

      Effects of progressive resistance training on immune response in aging and chronic inflammation.

       Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28, 1356.

26. ROBSON, P. J., BLANNIN, A., WALSH, N., CASTELL, L. & GLEESON, M. 1999. Effects of exercise

       intensity, duration and recovery on in vitro neutrophil function in male athletes. International

       journal of sports medicine, 20, 128-135.

   

27. RONSEN, O., KJELDSEN-KRAGH, J., HAUG, E., BAHR, R. & PEDERSEN, B. K. 2002. Recovery time affects

      immunoendocrine responses to a second bout of endurance exercise. American Journal of

      Physiology- Cell Physiology, 283, C1612-C1620.

28. SHEPHARD, R. & SHEK, P. 1995. Exercise, aging and immune function. International journal of sports

      medicine, 16, 1-6.

29. SHEPHARD, R. J. 2003. Adhesion molecules, catecholamines and leucocyte redistribution during and

      following exercise. Sports Medicine, 33, 261-284.

30. SHEPHARD, R. J. & SHEK, P. N. 1999. Immune dysfunction as a factor in heat illness. Critical reviews in

       immunology, 19, 285.

31. SMITH, J. 1997. Exercise immunology and neutrophils. International journal of sports medicine, 18,

      46.

32. SMITH, L. L. 2003. Overtraining, excessive exercise, and altered immunity: is this a T helper-1 versus

      T helper-2 lymphocyte response? Sports Medicine, 33, 347-364.

 

33. TANIMURA, Y., SHIMIZU, K., TANABE, K., OTSUKI, T., YAMAUCHI, R., MATSUBARA, Y., IEMITSU, M.,

      MAEDA, S. & AJISAKA, R. 2008. Exercise-induced oxidative DNA damage and lymphocytopenia in

      sedentary young males. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40, 1455.

34. TIMMONS, B. W., TARNOPOLSKY, M. A. & BAR-OR, O. 2004. Immune responses to strenuous exercise

      and carbohydrate intake in boys and men. Pediatric research, 56, 227-234.

35. TVEDE, N., KAPPEL, M., HALKJAER-KRISTENSEN, J., GALBO, H. & PEDERSEN, B. 1993. The effect of

      light, moderate and severe bicycle exercise on lymphocyte subsets, natural and lymphokine

      activated killer cells, lymphocyte proliferative response and interleukin 2 production. International

       journal of  sports medicine, 14, 275-275.

36. VASANKARI, T., KUJALA, U., SARNA, S. & AHOTUPA, M. 1998. Effects of ascorbic acid and

      carbohydrate ingestion on exercise induced oxidative stress. Journal of sports medicine and physical

       fitness, 38, 281-285.

37. WALSH, N. P. & WHITHAM, M. 2006. Exercising in environmental extremes: a greater threat to

       immune function? Sports Medicine, 36, 941-976.

38. WANG, J. S. & LIN, C. T. 2010. Systemic hypoxia promotes lymphocyte apoptosis induced by

       oxidative stress during moderate exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 108, 371-382.

39.  WIGERNAES, I., HOSTMARK, A., KIERULF, P. & STROMME, S. 2000. Active recovery reduces the

       decrease in circulating white blood cells after exercise. International journal of sports medicine, 21,

       608-612.

40. WIGERNÆS, I., HØSTMARK, A. T., STRØMME, S. B., KIERULF, P. & BIRKELAND, K. 2001. Active

       recovery and post-exercise white blood cell count, free fatty acids, and hormones in endurance

       athletes. European journal of applied physiology, 84, 358-366.

41. WOODS, J. A., DAVIS, J., SMITH, J. A. & NIEMAN, D. 1999. Exercise and cellular innate immune

      function. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 31, 57.