تأثیر دو شیوۀ تمرین مقاومتی و بی‌تمرینی بر سطوح سرمی میوستاتین، کورتیزول، تستوسترون و قدرت عضلات مردان غیرورزشکار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس‌ارشد گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی تأثیر دو شیوۀ تمرین مقاومتی و یک دوره بی‌تمرینی بر سطوح سرمی میوستاتین، کورتیزول، تستوسترون و قدرت عضلات مردان غیرورزشکار بود. به این منظور 34 مرد غیرورزشکار (سن 8/2±35/33 سال) به سه گروه: تجربی الف (چهار جلسه تمرین )، تجربی ب (سه جلسه تمرین در هفته) و کنترل تقسیم شدند. تمرین مقاومتی ( 24 جلسه) براساس پروتکل تمرینی کرامر و همکاران (2004) و شامل 3 ست 8 تا 10 تکراری با 60 تا 70 درصد 1RM در عضلات بزرگ بدن بود. نمونه‌گیری خون، آزمون قدرت و سنجش ترکیب بدنی پیش از شروع اولین جلسه، پایان 24 جلسه و بعد از یک دوره بی‌تمرینی انجام گرفت. نتایج با استفاده از تجزیه‌وتحلیل Mix ANOVA و آزمون تعقیبی توکی نشان داد که تمرین مقاومتی موجب افزایش قدرت عضلانی، تودۀ بدون چربی، تستوسترون و کاهش کورتیزول و میوستاتین در هر دو گروه شده است. این افزایش و کاهش در گروه تجربی الف بیشتر از گروه تجربی ب بود (05/0 (P< ، همچنین یک دوره بی‌تمرینی موجب افزایش سطوح سرمی میوستاتین و کورتیزول در گروه تجربی ب شد (05/0 (P 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Two Kinds of Resistance Training and Detraining on Serum Levels of Myostatin, Cortisol, Testosterone and Muscle Strength of Non-Athlete Men

نویسندگان [English]

  • mokhtar askarpour kabir 1
  • mohamad kordi 2
  • fatme shabkhiz 3
1 M.Sc. of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Exercise Physiology Department, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Exercise Physiology Department, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two kinds of resistance training and one period of detraining on serum levels of myostatin, cortisol, testosterone and muscle strength of non-athlete men. For this purpose, 34 non-athlete men (age 33.35+2.8 yr) were divided into three groups: experimental A (4 sessions of training per week), experimental B (3 sessions of training per week) and control. The resistance training (24 sessions) was performed based on Cramer et al. (2004) including 3 sets of 8-10 repetitions with 60-70% 1RM in big muscles. Blood sampling, strength test and body composition measurement were performed before the first session, after the last session and after one period of detraining. The data were analyzed by Mix ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed that resistance training increased muscle strength, fat free body mass and testosterone while it decreased cortisol and myostatin in both groups. This increase and decrease were higher in experimental A group than experimental B group (P˂0.05). Also, a period of detraining increased serum levels of myostatin and cortisol in experimental B group (P˂0.05). Finally, the findings showed that training frequency led to higher increase and maintenance of those changes resulted from resistance training.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cortisol
  • detraining
  • Myostatin
  • resistance training
  • Testosterone
 

1- بومپا، تئودور. (1382). زمانبندی و طراحی تمرین قدرتی در ورزش. ترجمۀ حمید، رجبی. حمید، آقاعلی‌نژاد. معرفت، سیاه کوهیان. انتشارات فردانش‌پژوهان، چاپ اول، ص 27-4.

 

2- قراخانلو، رضا. صارمی، عباس. امیدفر، کبری. شرقی، ساسان. قرائتی، محمدرضا.(1387). اثر تمرین مقاومتی بر سطوح سرمی میوستاتین، تستوسترون، و کورتیزول در مردان جوان. فصلنامۀ المپیک، شمارۀ 3.  ص 43-31.

 

  1. Ahtiainen, JP; Pakarinen, AM; Alen, WJ; Kraemer, K. (2003). Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength–trained and untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol; Vol.89, No.6, PP:555-563.
  2. Allen, DL; Unterman, TG. (2007). Regulation of myostatin expression and myoblast differentiation by foxo and smad transcription factor. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol.; Vol.292, No.1, PP:188-199.
  3. Artaza, JN; Bhasin, S; Mallidis, C; Taylor, W; Ma, K. (2002). Endogenus expression and localization of myostatin and its relation to myosin heavy chain distribution I C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. J Cell Physiol; Vol 190, No 2, PP:170-179.
  4. Chen, Y;  Zajac, JD;  Maclean, HE. (2005). Androgen regulation of satellite cell function. Journal of Endocrinology; Vol.181, No.10, PP:21-31.
  5.  Dalbo, j; Roberts, MD; Sunderland, KL; Poole, CN; Stout, JR; Beck, TW. ( 2011). Acute Loading and Aging Effects on Myostatin Pathway Biomarkers in Human Skeletal Muscle After Three Sequential Bouts of Resistance Exercise. j appl physiol; Vol.66, No.8, PP:855-65.
  6. Hulmi, JJ; Kovanen, V; Selänne, H; Kraemer, VJ. (2007). Postexercise myostatin and activin IIb mRNA levels: effects of strength training. Med Sci Sports Exerc; Vol.39, No.2, PP:289-297.

9.      Jensky, NE; Sims, JK; Rice, JC; Dreyer, HC; Schroeder, ET. (2007). The influence of eccentric exercise on mRNA expression of skeletal muscle regulator. Eur J Appl Physiol; Vol.101, No.4, PP:473-80.

  1. Jespersen, A; Nedergaard, LL; Andersen, P; Schjerling, JL; Andersen. (2009). Myostatin expression during human muscle hypertrophy and subsequent atrophy: increased myostatin with detraining. Scand J Med Sci Sports; Vol.21, No.2, PP:215-23.
  2. Joulia, J; Ekaza, D; Cabello, G. (2006). Myostatin regulation of muscle development: molecular basis,natural mutations, physiopathologycal aspects. Experimental Cell Research; Vol.312, No.12, PP:2410-2414.
  3. Kerksick, CM; Rasmussen, C; Lancaster, S; Starks, M; Smith, P. (2007). Impact of differing protein sources and a creatine containing nutritional formula after 12 weeks of resistance training. Nutrition; vol.23, No.9, PP:647-656.
  4. Kraemer, WJ; Ratamess, NA. (2005). Hormonal response and adaptation to resistance exercise and training. Sports Med; Vol.35, No.4, PP:339-361.
  5. Kraemer, WJ; Häkkinen, K; Newton, RU; Nindl, BC; Volek, JS; McCormick, M. (1999). Effects of heavy resistance training on hormonal respons patterns in younger versus older men. J Appl Physiol; Vol.87, No.3, PP:982-992.
  6. Ma,  K; Malliadis, C; Artaza, J; Taylor, W;  Gonzalez, N; Bahsin, S. (2001). Characterization of 5’-regulatory region of human myostatin gene: regulation by dexamethasone in vitro. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; Vol.281, No.6, PP:1128-1136.
  7. Mero, AA; Hulmi, JJ; Salmijärvi, H; Katajavuori, M; Haverinen, M; Holviala, J. (2012). Resistance training induced increase in muscle fiber size in young and older men. J Appl Physiol; Vol.113, No.3, PP:641-50.
  8. Raastad, T; Bjøro, T; Hallén, J. (2000). Hormonal responses to high-intensity strength exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol; Vol.82, No.1, PP:121-128.
  9. Roth, SM; Martel, GF; Ferrell, RE; Metter, EJ; Hurley, BF; Rogers, MA. (2003). myostatin gene expression is reduced in humans with heavy resistance strength training brief communication. EXPBIOL MED; Vol.228, No.6, PP:706-709.
  10. Salehian, B; Mahabadi, V; Bialas, J; Ma, K. (2006). The effect of glutamine on prevention of glucocortocoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is associated whit myostatin expression. Metabolism Clinical and Exprimental; Vol.55, No.9, PP:1239-1247.
  11. Saremi, A. (2009). Effect of resistance training on bone mineral density and serum levels of myostatin in young men. J Arak University of Medical Sciences; Vol.12, No.2, PP:89-97.
  12. Sinha, I; Artaza, J; Woodhouse, L; Gonzalez, N; Singh, AB. (2001). Testosterone-induced increase in muscle size in healthy young men is associated with musclefiber hypertrophy. Am J PhysiolEndocrinol Metab; Vol.283, No.1, PP:164-169.
  13. Sinha, I; Roth, SM; Lee, MI; Bhasin, S. (2003). Testosterone-induced muscle hypertrophy is associated with an increase in satellite cell number in healthy young men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; Vol.285, No.1, PP:197-205.
  14. Solomon, AM. (2006). Modifying muscle mass- the endocrine perspective. Journal of Endocrinology; Vol.191, No.5, PP:349-360.
  15. Staron, RS; Leonardi, A; Karapondo, T; Falkel, JE; Hagerman, FC; Hikida, RS. (1991). Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in heavy-resistance-trained women after detraining and retraining. J Appl Physiol; Vol.70, No.2, PP:631-40.
  16. Stewart, CE; Rittweger, J. (2006). Adaptive processes in skeletal muscle molecular regulators andgenetics influences. J Musculoskelet Neural Interact; Vol.6, No.1, PP:73-86.
  17. Toigo, M; Boutellier, U. (2006). New fundamental resistance exercise determinants of molecular and cellular muscle adaptation. Eur J Appl Physiol; Vol.97, No.6, PP:643-663.
  18. Tsuchida, K. (2004). Activins,myostatin and related TGF-β family members as novel thrapeutic target for endocrine, metabolic and immune disorders. Current Drug TargeImmune, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders; Vol.4, No.2, PP:157-166.
  19. Walker, KS; Kambadur, R; Sharma, M; Smith, HK. (2004). resistance training alter plasma myostatin but not IGF1in healthy men. Med sci sport exerc; Vol.36, No.5, PP:787-793.
  20. Walsh, FS; Celeste, AJ. (2005). Myostatin: a modulator of skeletal muscle stem cells. Biochemical Society Transactions; Vol.33, No.6, PP:1513-1517.
  21. Whittemore, LA; Song, K; Li, X; Aghajanian, J; Davies, M; Girgenrath, S; Hill, JJ. (2003). Inhibition of myostatin in adult mice increase skeletal muscle mass and strength. Biophys Res Commun; Vol.300,No.4, PP:965-971.
  22. Willoughby, DS; Wilborn, CD. (2006). Estradiol in females may negate skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA expression and serum myostatin propeptide levels after eccentric muscle contraction. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine; Vol.5, No.9, PP:672-681.
  23. Willoghby, DS. Effects of an alleged myostatin binding supplement and heavy resistance training on serum myostatin, muscle strength and mass and body composition. Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism; Vol.14, No.4, PP:461-72.
  24. Viru, A. (2004). Cortisol-essential adaptation hormone in exercise. Int J Sports Med; Vol.25, No.6, PP:461-464.