Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 PhD Student of Exercise Physiology, University Campus, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran

3 PhD Student of Exercise Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran


The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 12 weeks of interval training with high and moderate intensity on perilipin 3 (PLIN3) of visceral adipose tissue and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic male rats. In this study, 24 male rats with type 2 diabetes were randomly divided into three groups: interval training with moderate intensity (MIIT), interval training with high intensity (HIIT) and control. Interval training (HIIT, MIIT) was applied for 12 weeks, 5 sessions per week. The MIIT protocol included 13 four-min. bouts of activity with intensity of 65-70% vo2max and the HIIT protocol included 10 four-min. bouts of activity with intensity of 85-90% vo2max with 2-minute active rest periods. Western Blot method was used to measure PLIN3 protein levels. ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for data analysis. The results indicated a significant decrease in PLIN3 in the HIIT and MIIT groups compared with the control group (P=0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the training groups (P=0.274). Also, both HIIT and MIIT protocols significantly decreased serum levels of glucose (P=0.001), while they had no significant effects on serum insulin and insulin resistance (P˃0.05). There was no significant difference between training groups in insulin, glucose and insulin resistance changes (P˃0.05). The findings of this study showed that both HIIT and MIIT protocols drastically reduced PLIN3 of visceral adipose and improved glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, it seems that PLIN3 changes in visceral adipose are independent of the training intensity.


1.   Mackenzie R, Maxwell N, Castle P, Brickley G, Watt P. Acute hypoxia and exercise improve insulin sensitivity (SI2*) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. 2011;27(1):94-101.
2.   Akbar S, Bellary S, Griffiths HR. Dietary antioxidant interventions in type 2 diabetes patients: a meta-analysis. The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease. 2011;11(2):62-8.
3.   Cartee GD. Roles of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in insulin-and exercise-stimulated glucose transport of skeletal muscle. Diabetologia. 2015;58(1):19-30.
4.   Shaw CS, Shepherd SO, Wagenmakers AJ, Hansen D, Dendale P, Van Loon LJ. Prolonged exercise training increases intramuscular lipid content and perilipin 2 expression in type I muscle fibers of patients with type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2012;303(9):E1158-E65.
5.   Paul A, Chan L, Bickel PE. The PAT family of lipid droplet proteins in heart and vascular cells. Current hypertension reports. 2008;10(6):461-6.
6.   Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Tipton K, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Burniston JG, et al. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training increase net intramuscular triglyceride breakdown and expression of perilipin 2 and 5. The Journal of physiology. 2013;591(3):657-75.
7.   Dubé JJ, Amati F, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, Sauers SE, Goodpaster BH. Exercise-induced alterations in intramyocellular lipids and insulin resistance: the athlete's paradox revisited. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2008;294(5):E882-E8.
8.   Van Aggel-Leijssen DP, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ, Senden JM, Van Baak MA. Effect of exercise training at different intensities on fat metabolism of obese men. Journal of applied physiology. 2002;92(3):1300-9.
9.   Shepherd SO CM, Tipton KD, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Burniston JG, Wagenmakers AJ, Shaw CS. Preferential utilization of perilipin 2‐associated intramuscular triglycerides during 1 h of moderate‐intensity endurance‐type exercise. Experimental physiology. Exp Physiol 2012;1:97(8):970-80.
10. Pruchnic R, Katsiaras A, He J, Kelley DE, Winters C, Goodpaster BH. Exercise training increases intramyocellular lipid and oxidative capacity in older adults. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2004;287(5):E857-E62.
11. Pourteymour S, Lee S, Langleite TM, Eckardt K, Hjorth M, Bindesbøll C, et al. Perilipin 4 in human skeletal muscle: localization and effect of physical activity. Physiological reports. 2015;3(8).
12. Louche K, Badin P-M, Montastier E, Laurens C, Bourlier V, De Glisezinski I, et al. Endurance exercise training up-regulates lipolytic proteins and reduces triglyceride content in skeletal muscle of obese subjects. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2013;98(12):4863-71.
13. MacPherson RE, Herbst EA, Reynolds EJ, Vandenboom R, Roy BD, Peters SJ. Subcellular localization of skeletal muscle lipid droplets and PLIN family proteins OXPAT and ADRP at rest and following contraction in rat soleus muscle. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2011;302(1):R29-R36.
14. Straub BK, Stoeffel P, Heid H, Zimbelmann R, Schirmacher P. Differential pattern of lipid droplet‐associated proteins and de novo perilipin expression in hepatocyte steatogenesis. Hepatology. 2008;47(6):1936-46.
15. Kim D-H, Kim S-H, Kim W-H, Moon C-R. The effects of treadmill exercise on expression of UCP-2 of brown adipose tissue and TNF-α of soleus muscle in obese Zucker rats. Journal of exercise nutrition & biochemistry. 2013;17(4):199.
16. Kim ES, Im JA, Kim KC, Park JH, Suh SH, Kang ES, et al. Improved insulin sensitivity and adiponectin level after exercise training in obese Korean youth. Obesity. 2007;15(12):3023-30.
17. Amati F, Dubé JJ, Alvarez-Carnero E, Edreira MM, Chomentowski P, Coen PM, et al. Skeletal muscle triglycerides, diacylglycerols, and ceramides in insulin resistance: another paradox in endurance-trained athletes? Diabetes. 2011;60(10):2588-97.
19. Holmes A, Coppey LJ, Davidson EP, Yorek MA. Rat models of diet-induced obesity and high fat/low dose streptozotocin type 2 diabetes: effect of reversal of high fat diet compared to treatment with enalapril or menhaden oil on glucose utilization and neuropathic endpoints. Journal of diabetes research. 2015;2015.
20. Sangstad AD, Kaspersen K-HF, , Basnet P, Ytrehus K, Acharya G.Hafstad AD. Effects of high intensity interval training on pregnant rats, and the placenta, heart and liver of their fetuses. PloS one. 2015;10(11):e0143095.
21. Sishi B, Loos B, Ellis B, Smith W, du Toit EF, Engelbrecht AM. Diet‐induced obesity alters signalling pathways and induces atrophy and apoptosis in skeletal muscle in a prediabetic rat model. Experimental Physiology. 2011;96(2):179-93.
22. Kuramoto K, Sakai F, Yoshinori N, Nakamura TY, Wakabayashi S, Kojidani T, et al. Deficiency of a lipid droplet protein, perilipin 5, suppresses myocardial lipid accumulation, thereby preventing type 1 diabetes-induced heart malfunction. Molecular and cellular biology. 2014;34(14):2721-31.
23. van Loon LJ, Koopman R, Stegen JH, Wagenmakers AJ, Keizer HA, Saris WH. Intramyocellular lipids form an important substrate source during moderate intensity exercise in endurance‐trained males in a fasted state. The Journal of physiology. 2003;553(2):611-25.
24. Stellingwerff T, Boon H, Jonkers RA, Senden JM, Spriet LL, Koopman R, et al. Significant intramyocellular lipid use during prolonged cycling in endurance-trained males as assessed by three different methodologies. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2007;292(6):E1715-E23.