Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license
Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oxidative stress status resulted from aerobic interval training in type 2 diabetic patients. 24 type 2 diabetic patients under medical treatment (mean age 50.29 ± 6.50 years and BMI 27.21 ± 0.67 kg/m2) were divided into training and control groups. The training program was conducted for 10 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 40 min. with 80% HRmax. Antioxidant indices [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)], oxidant index [malondialdehyde (MDA)] and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) were measured. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Results showed that aerobic interval training significantly increased NOx (P=0.004) and GPX (P=0.001) while it significantly decreased MDA (P=0.029). This training had no significant effect on SOD (P=0.063). In addition, interval training improved aerobic fitness capacity (P=0.005), but metabolic parameters showed no significant effects resulting from aerobic interval training. Aerobic interval training increased NO bioavailability through a decrease in oxidants and an increase in antioxidants. Also, intervals of exercise training improved the oxidation status and endothelial function through an increase in antioxidants and shear stress.
- Ahmad FK, Zhiheng H, King GL. Molecular targets of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Curr. Drug Targets. 2005; 6:487–494.
- Alghadir AH, Gabr SA Anwer S, Al-Eisa E. Fatigue and oxidative stress response to physical activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2015; 1-6.
- Anderson D, Yu TW, McGregor DB. Comet assay responses as indicators of carcinogen exposure. Mutagenesis. 1998; 13 (6): 539–555.
- Beckman JS, Koppenol WH. Nitric oxide, superoxide, and peroxynitrite: the good, the bad, and ugly. Am J Physiol. 1996; 271(5): C1424–C1437.
- 5.Belia S, Santilli F, Beccafico S, De Feudis L, Morabito C, Davi G, et al. Oxidative-induced membrane damage in diabetes lymphocytes: effects on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Free Radical Research. 2009; 43 (2): 138–148.
- Bloch-Damti A, Bashan N. Proposed mechanisms for the induction of insulin resistance by oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signaling. 2005; 7:1553–1567.
- Bogdanis GC, Stavrinou P, Fatouros IG, Philippou A, Chatzinikolaou A, Draganidis D, Ermidis G, Maridaki M. Short-term high-intensity interval exercise training attenuates oxidative stress responses and improves antioxidant status in healthy humans. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 61: 171–177
- Barlovic DP, Soro-Paavonen A, Jandeleit-Dahm KA. RAGE biology, atherosclerosis and diabetes. Clinical Science. 2011; 121: 43–55.
- Covas MI, Elosua R, Fito M, Alcantara M, Coca L, Marrugat J. Relationship between physical activity and oxidative stress biomarkers in women. Medicine Science in Sports & Exercise. 2002; 34 (5): 184-189.
- Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lu Y, Singh GM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2.7 million participants. Lancet. 2011; 378: 31–40.
- DeFronzo RA. From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: A new paradigm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2009; 58: 773–95.
- Eringa EC, Stehouwer CDA, Nieuw Amerongen GP, Ouwehand L, Westerhof N, Sipkema P. Vasoconstrictor effects of insulin in skeletal muscle arterioles are mediated by ERK1/2 activation in endothelium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004; 287: H2043–8.
- Frøsig C, Rose AJ, Treebak JT, Kiens B, Richter EA, Wojtaszewski JF. Effects of endurance exercise training on insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle Interactions at the level of PI3-K, Akt and AS160. Diabetes. 2007; 56: 2093–2102.
- Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, et al. 2004. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J. Clin. Invest. 114(12): 1752– 1761.
- Gabriel B, Ratkevicius A, Gray P, Frenneaux MP, Gray SR. High-intensity exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and markers of oxidative stress. Clinical Science. 2012; 123: 313–321.
- Gordon LA, Morrison EY, Mcgrowder DA, Young R, Fraser YT, Zamora EM, et al. Exercise therapy on lipid profile and oxidative stress indicators in patients with typpe-2 diabetes. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008; 13: 8-21.
- Iborra RT, Ribeiro IC, Neves MQ, Charf AM, Lottenberg SA, Negrão CE, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves the role of high-density lipoprotein antioxidant and reduces plasma lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2008; 18(6): 742–750.
- Jain, S. K. Hyperglycemia can cause membrane lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility in human red blood cells. J Biol Chem. 1989; 264: 21340–21345.
- Jackson M.J. Reactive oxygen species and redox-regulation of skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005; 360(1464): 2285–2291.
- Kadoglou NPE, Iliadis F, Angelopoulou N, Sailer N, Fotiadis G, Voliotis K, et al. Cardiorespiratory capacity is associated with favourable cardiovascular risk profile in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications 2009; 23: 160–166.
- Koh YH, Suzuki K, Che W, Park YS, Miyamoto Y, Higashiyama S, et al. Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase by NO leads to the accumulation of H2O2 and the induction of HB-EGF via c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. FASEB J. 2001; 15(8): 1472– 1474.
- Kodama S, Tanaka S, Saito K, Shu M, Sone Y, Onitake F, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007; 167(10): 999–1008.
- Lemos ET, Nunes S, Teixeira F, Reis F. Regular physical exercise training assists in preventing type 2 diabetes development: focus on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2011; 10(12); 1-15.
- Lemos ET, Oliveira J, Pinheiro JP, Reis F. Regular Physical Exercise as a Strategy to Improve Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Status: Benefits in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2012.
- Little JP, Safdar A, Wilkin GP, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms. J Physiol. 2010; 588: 1011–1022.
- Marcus RL, Smith S, Morrell G, Addison O, Dibble LE, Wahoff-Stice D, et al. Comparison of combined aerobic and high-force eccentric resistance exercise with aerobic exercise only for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Phys. Ther. 2008; 88(11): 1345–1354.
- Mitranun W, Deerochanawong C, Tanaka H, Suksom D. Continuous vs interval training on glycemic control and macro and microvascular reactivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2014: 24: e69–e76.
- Miyamoto Y, Koh YH, Park YS, Fujiwara N, Sakiyama H, Misonou Y, et al. Oxidative stress caused by inactivation of glutathione peroxidase and adaptive responses. Biol. Chem. 2003; 384(4): 567–574.
- Nojima H, Watanabe H, Yamane K, Kitahara Y, Sekikawa K, Yamamoto H, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise training on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 2008; 57: 170–176.
- Oliveira VN, Bessa A, Jorge MLMP, Oliveira RJS, de Mello MT, Agostini GG, et al. The effect of different training programs on antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2012; 37: 334–344.
- Ribeiro F, Alves AJ, Duarte JA, Oliveira J. Is exercise training an effective therapy targeting endothelial dysfunction and vascular wall inflammation? Int J Cardiol 2010: 141: 214–221.
- Rakobowchuk M, Tanguay S, Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Gibala MJ, MacDonald MJ. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training induce similar improvements in peripheral arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008; 295: R236–R242.
- Saito T, Watanabe M, Nishida J, Izumi T, Omura M, Takagi T, et al. Lifestyle modification and prevention of type 2 diabetes in overweight Japanese with impaired fasting glucose levels: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine.2011; 171(15): 1352–1360.
- 34. Su Y, Liu XM, Sun YM, Jin HB, Fu R, Wang YY, et al. The relationship between endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in diabetes and pre diabetes. Int J Clin Pract. 2008; 62:877–882.
- Tan KCB, Chow WS, Ai VHG, Metz C, Bucala R, Lam KSL. Advanced glycation end products and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25:1055–1059.
- Vinetti G, Mozzini C, Desenzani P, Boni E, Bulla L, Lorenzetti I, et al. Supervised exercise training reduces oxidative stress and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Scientific reports. 2015; 5: 9238.
- Vollaard NB, Shearman JP, Cooper CE. Exercise induced oxidative stress: myths, realities and physiological relevance. Sports Med. 2005; 35(12): 1045–1062.
- Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. CMAJ. 2006; 174: 801–809.
- Wright JE, Scism-Bacon JL, Glass LC. Oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes: the role of fasting and postprandial glycaemia. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2006; 60: 308–314.
- Wisløff U, Støylen A, Loennechen JP, Bruvold M, Rognmo Ø, Haram PM, et al. Superior cardiovascular, effect of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in heart failure patients: a randomized study. Circulation 2007; 115: 3042–3044.
- Zhang Q, Malik P, Pandey D, Gupta S, Jagnandan D, de Chantemele EB, et al. Paradoxical activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by NADPH oxidase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008; 28:1627–1633.