Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license


1 Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

2 MSc of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

3 Professor of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.


The purpose of present study was to examine the effect of caffeine consumption on substrate metabolism and time to exhaustion during exercise and one hour after exercise in athletic female. Eleven female athlete students (age 23±1.54 years, body weight 56.09±5.99 kg, and aerobic power 40.21±1.01ml/kg/min) volunteered and were randomly divided into three groups of control,placebo (starch capsule), and caffeine (5 mg/kg), in a crossover design. Exercise protocol included exhausting running on treadmill with 70% of intensity of maximal heart rate. Subjects’ respiratory gases were collected at 30 minutes before exercise in prostrate position, during exercise, and one hour after exercise-as EPOC. The amounts of fat oxidation, carbohydrate and energy expenditure were measured by indirect calorimeter.The data was analyzed using the Kolmogrov – Smirnov, ANOVA with repeated measures and LSD post-hoc tests, at significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed that with caffeine consumption carbohydrate oxidation was significantly increased (p<0.05), but there was no significant effect on fat oxidation (p>0.05). Furthermore, caffeine consumption had no significant effect on substrate metabolism EPOC (p>0.05), while it significantly increased time to exhausion (p>0.05). Therefore, female athletes can increse/improve the time to exhausion by consumption of caffeine supplements (5 mg /kg) 1 hour before exercise.



    1. اابراهیمی، محسن، رحمانی‌نیا، فرهاد، دمیرچی، ارسلان، میرزایی، بهمن. (1387). "اثر کافئین بر پاسخ‌های متابولیکی و قلبی - عروقی به فعالیت زیر بیشینه در مردان چاق و لاغر". فصلنامۀ المپیک. شمارۀ 4، پیاپی 44، ص 27-17.
    2. Armstrong, L.E. (2002). “Caffeine body fluid-electrolyte balance and exercise performance”. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism., Vol. 12, No. 2, PP: 189-206.
    3.  Astorino, T, A., Martin, B. J., Wong, K., Schachtsiek, L. (2011). “Effect of acute caffeine ingestion on EPOC after intense resistance training”. J Sport med phys fitness., Vol. 51, No. 1, PP: 11-7.
    4. Bell, D.G., Mclellan, T. M. (2003). “Effect of repeated caffeine ingestion on repeated exhaustive exercise endurance”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise., Vol. 35, No. 8, PP: 1348-1354.
    5. Bridge, C. A., Jones, M. A. (2006). “The effect of caffeine ingestion on 8 km run performance in a field setting”. J Sports Sci., Vol. 24, No. 4, PP: 433- 439.
    6. 6.      Burke, L. (2008). “Caffeine and sports performance”. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism., Vol.33, No. 6, PP:1319-1334.
    7.  Davis, G. K., Green, M. (2009). “Caffeine and anaerobic performance”. Sports Med., Vol. 39, No. 10, PP: 813-832.
    8.  DeSisso, T. D., Gerst, W., Patrick, D. (2005). “Effect of caffeine on metabolic and cardiovascular responses to submaximal exercise: boys versus men”. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 5, PP: 465- 473.
    9. Donelly, K., McNaughton, L. (1992).”The effect of two levels of caffeine ingestion on excess postexercise oxygen consumption in untrained women.” Eur J Appl Physiol., Vol. 65, PP: 459-63.
    10. Erickson, M. A., Schwarzkopf, R.J. (1987). “Effect of caffeine, fructose and glucose ingestion on muscle glycogen utilization during exercise”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise., Vol. 19, No. 6, PP: 579-583.
    11. Essig, D., Costill, D. L., Van Handel, P.J. (1980). “Effect of caffeine ingestion on utilization of muscle glycogen and lipid during leg ergometer cycling”. International Journal of Sports Medicine., Vol. 1, No. 2, PP: 86-90.
    12. Fred, B. (1998).”Utilization of lipids during exercise in human subjects: metabolic and dietary constraints”. Br J Nut., Vol. 79, No. 2, PP: 117-128.
    13. Frayn, K. N. (1983). “Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange”. J Appl Physiol.,Vol. 55, N0. 2, PP:628-634.
    14. Graham, T. E., Battram, D. S., Dela, F., Ahmed, E., Thong, F. (2008). “Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during”. Applid Physiology Nutrition Metabolism., Vol. 33, No. 4, PP: 1311-1318.
    15. Graham, T. E., Helge, J. W., MacLean, D. A., Kiens, B., Richter, E. A. (2000). “Caffeine ingestion does not alter carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise”. Journal of Physiology., Vol. 529, No. 3, PP: 837-847.
    16. Graham, T. E., Hibbert, E., Sathasivam, P. (1998). “Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion”. J Appl Physiol., Vol. 85, No. 3, PP: 883–889.
    17.  Graham, T. E., Spriet, L. L. (1995). “Metabolic, catecholamine and exercise performance responses to various doses of caffeine”. J Appl Physiol., Vol. 78, No. 3, PP: 867-874.
    18. Greer, F., Friars, D., Graham, T. E. (2000). “Comparison of caffeine and theophylline ingestion: exercise metabolism and endurance”. J Appl Physiol., Vol. 89, No. 5, PP: 1837–1844.
    19. Hermann, J., Engles, A. (1999). “Influence of caffeine on metabolic and cardiovascular functions during sustained light intensity cycling and at rest”. Int J sport nutrition., Vol.  9, No. 4, PP: 361-370.
    20. Hulston, C. H., Jeukendrup, A. E. (2008). “Substrate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake”. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise., Vol.  40, No. 12, PP: 2096-2104
    21. Olcina, G., Maynar, M., Munoz, M., Timon, R., Caballero, M. J., Maynar, J. (2011). “Plasma total fatty acid responses to exercise following caffeine ingestion”. European Journal of Sport Science., Vol. 11, No. 2, PP: 111-118.
    22. Olcina, G. J., Timon, R., Munoz, D., Caballero, M. J., Maynar, J. I., Cordova, A., et al. (2006). “Effect of caffeine on oxidative stress during maximum incremental exercise”. Journal of sport Science and Medicine., Vol. 5, PP: 621-628.
    23.  Ramos, S., Aguiar, P., Barreto, A., Rodriguse, A., Pereira, H., Dantas, E., Neto, F.(2006). “Effects of caffeine (3mg) on maximal oxygen consumption, plasmatic lactate and reaction time after maximum effort”. International Journal of Sport Science., Vol. 2, No. 5, PP:  42-52.
    24. Rourke, M. P., Brien, B. J., Knez, W. L. (2008). “Caffeine has a small effect on 5-km running performance of well-trained and recreational runners”. J Science and medicine in Sport., Vol. 11, No. 2, PP: 231- 233.
    25. Ryus, C. J. (2001). “Caffeine as a lipolytic food component increases endurance performance in rates and athletes”. J Nutr Sci Vitaminal., Vol. 47, No. 2, PP: 139-146.
    26. Sinclair, C. J., Geiger, J. D. (2000). “Caffeine use in sports: A pharmacological review”. Journal Medicine and Physical Fitness., Vol. 40, No. 1, PP: 71-79.
    27. Spriet, L. L., Maclean, D. A., Dyck, D. J., Hultman, E. (1992). “Caffeine ingestion and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans”. J Appl Physiol., Vol. 262, No.  25, PP: 891 -898.
    28.  Tarnopolsky, A. M. (2008). “Effect of caffeine on the neuromuscular system potential as an ergogenic aid”. J Appl Physiol Nut., Vol. 33, No. 6, PP: 1284-1289.
    29.  Turley, K. R. (2006). “Effect of caffeine on physiological responses to exercise in young boys and girls”. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 38, No. 3, PP: 520-526.
    30.  Van soeren, M. H., Graham, T. E. (1998). “Effect of caffeine on metabolism, exercise endurance, and catecholamine responses after withdrawal”. J Appl Physiol., Vol. 85, No. 4, PP: 1493–1501.
    31. Venables, M. C., Achten, J., Jeukendrup, A. E. (2005). “Determinants of fat oxidation during exercise in healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study”. J Appl Physiol., Vol. 98, No. 1, PP: 160-167.
    32. Volp, A. B., Bar, O. (2003). “Energy cost of walking in boys who differ in adiposity but are matched for body mass”. Med Sci Sport Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 4, PP: 669-74.