Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license
Associated professor, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences. University of Tabriz,. Tabriz, Iran.
Associated professor, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences. University of Tabriz., Tabriz, Iran
PhD candidate of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences. University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Angiogenesis and increased capillary density of skeletal muscle is one of the potential physiological changes during the flow restriction exercise (BFR). Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the Effects of 4 weeks resistance training with and without blood flow restriction on GH, IGF-1, NO and Lactate in male rock climbers. In this semi-experimental study, 20 elite climbers (aged 23±1.43 years; body fat percent 13.1±2.25%; 2 years athletic training history) in a randomized and double-blind design were divided in two equal rock climbing with blood flow restriction (BFR) or rock climbing without blood flow restriction (NBFR) groups Resistance training program was three sessions per week for 4 weeks and each session was 80 minutes with a training intensity of 30% of maximum strength and six movements. Blood samples were obtained in the 4 phases: before and 24 hours after rock climbing protocols in per and post-test. Vascular endothelial growth factor and Growth Hormone were analyzed. Finally, Data were analyzed independent and independent T test. The significance level was set at p<0.05. In the pretest, the increase in concentrations of IGF-1, NO, growth hormone and lactate in the BFR group was greater than NBFR (P <0.05). In addition, the increase in resting NO values was significant only in the BFR group (P <0.05) but the change in resting levels of IGF-1, GH and blood lactate was not significant in the NBFR group (P <0.05). Also, the exercise induced response of IGF-1, NO and GH increased significantly in the .
- Li L, Ru A, Liao T, Zou S, Niu XH, Wang YT. Effects of Rock Climbing Exercise on Physical Fitness among College Students: A Review Article and Meta-analysis. Iran J Public Health. 2018;47(10):1440-52.
- Lutter C, El-Sheikh Y, Schöffl I, Schöffl V. Sport climbing: medical considerations for this new Olympic discipline. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine; 2017.
- Espana-Romero V, Jensen RL, Sanchez X, Ostrowski ML, Szekely JE, Watts PB. Physiological responses in rock climbing with repeated ascents over a 10-week period. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(3):821-8.
- MacKenzie R, Monaghan L, Masson RA, Werner AK, Caprez TS, Johnston L, et al. Physical and Physiologic Determinants of Rock Climbing. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019:1-30.
- Hasani M, Karimi M, Sharifian M. Comparison of the effect of resistance training with blood flow restriction and traditional method on hormonal responses in young male bodybuilders. Asian Exercise and Sport Science Jour nal. 2018;2(1):18-29.
- Jensen AE, Palombo LJ, Niederberger B, Turcotte LP, Kelly KR. Exercise training with blood flow restriction has little effect on muscular strength and does not change IGF-1 in fit military warfighters. Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 2016;27:33-40.
- Wahl P, Zinner C, Achtzehn S, Bloch W, Mester J. Effect of high-and low-intensity exercise and metabolic acidosis on levels of GH, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and cortisol. Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 2010;20(5):380-5.
- Mitchell EA, Martin NRW, Turner MC, Taylor CW, Ferguson RA. The combined effect of sprint interval training and postexercise blood flow restriction on critical power, capillary growth, and mitochondrial proteins in trained cyclists. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2019;126(1):51-9.
- Patterson SD, Hughes L, Warmington S, Burr J, Scott BR, Owens J, et al. Blood Flow Restriction Exercise Position Stand: Considerations of Methodology, Application, and Safety. Front Physiol. 2019;10:533.
- Centner C, Zdzieblik D, Roberts L, Gollhofer A, Konig Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training with Protein Supplementation on Muscle Mass And Strength in Older Men. J Sports Sci Med. 2019;18(3):471-8.
- Montgomery R, Paterson A, Williamson C, Florida-James G, Ross MD. Blood Flow Restriction Exercise Attenuates the Exercise-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Response in Healthy, Young Men. Front Physiol. 2019;10:447.
- Ferguson RA, Hunt JEA, Lewis MP, Martin NRW, Player DJ, Stangier C, et al. The acute angiogenic signalling response to low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018;18(3):397-406.
- Bond V, Curry BH, Kumar K, Pemminati S, Gorantla VR, Kadur K, et al. Restricted Blood Flow Exercise in Sedentary, Overweight African-American Females May Increase Muscle Strength and Decrease Endothelial Function and Vascular Autoregulation. J Pharmacopuncture. 2017;20(1):23-8.
- Shimizu R, Hotta K, Yamamoto S, Matsumoto T, Kamiya K, Kato M, et al. Low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction improves vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation in healthy elderly people. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(4):749-57.
- Yasuda T, Meguro M, Sato Y, Nakajima T. Use and safety of KAATSU training: Results of a national survey in 2016. International Journal of KAATSU Training Research. 2017;13(1):1-9.
- Valenzuela PL, Sanchez-Martinez G, Torrontegi E, Vazquez-Carrion J, Gonzalez M, Montalvo Z, et al. Acute responses to On-Court Repeated-Sprint Training Performed With Blood Flow Restriction vs Systemic Hypoxia in Elite Badminton Athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019:1-27.
- Larkin KA, Macneil RG, Dirain M, Sandesara B, Manini TM, Buford TW. Blood flow restriction enhances post-resistance exercise angiogenic gene expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(11):2077-83.
- Aghaei m, Vakili j, Amirsasan R. The Effect Of Rock Climbing With Or Without Blood Flow Restriction On Exercise Induced Responses Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor And Growth Hormone In Elite Climbers: An Intervention Trial. Urmia Medical Journal. 2019;30(5):405-14.
- Patterson SD, Leggate M, Nimmo MA, Ferguson RA. Circulating hormone and cytokine response to low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(3):713-9.
- Kim J, Seo BS. How to calculate sample size and why. Clinics in orthopedic surgery. 2013;5(3):235-42.
- Deyhle MR, Hsu HS, Fairfield TJ, Cadez-Schmidt TL, Gurney BA, Mermier CM. Relative Importance of Four Muscle Groups for Indoor Rock Climbing Performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(7):2006-14.
- Buckner SL, Dankel SJ, Counts BR, Jessee MB, Mouser JG, Mattocks KT, et al. Influence of cuff material on blood flow restriction stimulus in the upper body. J Physiol Sci. 2017;67(1):207-15.
- Papini C, Sousa N, Bertucci D, Bertolini N, Acedo L, Gobbi S. Protocols with blood flow restriction during resistance training: a systematic review. Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde. 2014;19(6):667.
- Pope ZK, Willardson JM, Schoenfeld BJ. Exercise and blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(10):2914-26.
- Loenneke JP, Wilson JM, Marín PJ, Zourdos MC, Bemben MG. Low intensity blood flow restriction training: a m eta-analysis. European journal of applied physiology. 2012;112(5):1849-59.
- Goto K, Ishii N, Kizuka T, Takamatsu K. The impact of metabolic stress on hormonal responses and muscular adaptations. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2005;37(6):955-63.
- Weltman A, Weltman JY, Womack CJ, Davis SE, Blumer JL, Gaesser GA, et al. Exercise training decreases the growth hormone (GH) response to acute constant-load exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 1997;29(5):669-76.
- Bunt J, Boileau R, Bahr J, Nelson R. Sex and training differences in human growth hormone levels during prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1986;61(5):1796-801.
- Kjaer M, Bangsbo J, Lortie G, Galbo H. Hormonal response to exercise in humans: influence of hypoxia and physical training. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 1988;254(2):R197-R203.
- Godfrey RJ, Madgwick Z, Whyte GP. The exercise-induced growth hormone response in athletes. Sports Medicine. 2003;33(8):599-613.
- Kim E, Gregg LD, Kim L, Sherk VD, Bemben MG, Bemben DA. Hormone responses to an acute bout of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise in college-aged females. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(1):91-6.
- Takano H, Morita T, Iida H, Asada K-i, Kato M, Uno K, et al. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to a short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with the reduction of muscle blood flow. European journal of applied physiology. 2005;95(1):65-73.
- Pullinen T, Mero A, Huttunen P, Pakarinen A, Komi PV. Resistance exercise-induced hormonal responses in men, women, and pubescent boys. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2002;34(5):806-13.
- Kraemer WJ, Staron RS, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS, Fry AC, Gordon SE, et al. The effects of short-term resistance training on endocrine function in men and women. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1998;78(1):69-76.
- Correa-Silva SR, Lengyel AMJ. Influência dos glicocorticóides sobre o eixo somatotrófico. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia. 2003.
- Bahreinipour MA, Joukar S, Hovanloo F, Najafipour H, Naderi V, Rajiamirhasani A, et al. Mild aerobic training with blood flow restriction increases the hypertrophy index and MuSK in both slow and fast muscles of old rats: Role of PGC-1alpha. Life Sci. 2018;202:103-9.