Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license
1 Master of Science of Exercise Physiology, Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
Aim: exercise and hot water immersion is likely to more increase serum IL-6 and CXCL1 as well as insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome. However, no straight investigation has been done in this area. Therefore, the aim of study was to investigate effect of an acute cycling session while immersed in hot water versus land on serum IL-6 and CXCL1 level and also insulin resistance in male patients with metabolic syndrome.Methodology: 15 males with metabolic syndrome (age: 58.4±4.17, BMI: 31.27±3.27) experienced four test sessions (with 48 hour intervals) including on cycling or inactive sitting in hot water (42 0°C) head out immersion or land conditions with a cross over design. Each of cycling sessions were included on 30 min of interval activity at 50% of MHR. Blood samples were taken before and 15 min post intervention. The variables were quantified using Elisa and Enzymatic methods and the data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements (time series method) at 0.05 statistical significance level. Results: Cycling increased serum CXCL1 only in the hot water, while IL-6 elevation was only noted during land exercise (P<0.05). However, insulin resistance was lowered in both hot water (p=0.002) and land exercise (p=0.001) sessions with no difference for this decline, between the two sessions(p=0.217). Conclusion: Cycling within the hot water compared to land, do not provide a remarkable advantage regarding the amount of induced changes in serum IL-6 and CXCL1 and even insulin resistance. However, more investigations remain to be done because of the lack of evidence and study limitations.
Copyright © 2021
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- Asferg C, Jensen JS, Marott JL, Appleyard M, Møgelvang R, Jensen GB, et al. Markers of inflammation and hemodynamic measurements in obesity: Copenhagen City Heart Study. American journal of hypertension. 2009;22(4):451-6.
- Neels JG, Olefsky JM. Inflamed fat: what starts the fire? The Journal of clinical investigation. 2006;116(1):33-5.
- Shi H, Kokoeva MV, Inouye K, Tzameli I, Yin H, Flier JS. TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid–induced insulin resistance. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2006;116(11):3015-25.
- Sartipy P, Loskutoff DJ. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in obesity and insulin resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2003;100(12):7265-70.
- De Rooij SR, Nijpels G, Nilsson PM, Nolan JJ, Gabriel R, Bobbioni-Harsch E, et al. Low-grade chronic inflammation in the relationship between insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease (RISC) population: associations with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk profile. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1295-301.
- Festa A, D’Agostino R, Tracy RP, Haffner SM. Elevated levels of acute-phase proteins and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predict the development of type 2 diabetes: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Diabetes. 2002;51(4):1131-7.
- Oppenheim JJ, Zachariae CO, Mukaida N, Matsushima K. Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene" intercrine" cytokine family. Annual review of immunology. 1991;9(1):617-48.
- Kolaczkowska E, Kubes P. Neutrophil recruitment and function in health and inflammation. Nature reviews immunology. 2013;13(3):159.
- Pedersen L, Olsen CH, Pedersen BK, Hojman P. Muscle-derived expression of the chemokine CXCL1 attenuates diet-induced obesity and improves fatty acid oxidation in the muscle. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2012;302(7):E831-E40.
- Nedachi T, Fujita H, Kanzaki M. Contractile C2C12 myotube model for studying exercise-inducible responses in skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2008;295(5):E1191-E204.
- Rhind S, Gannon G, Shephard R, Buguet A, Shek P, Radomski M. Cytokine induction during exertional hyperthermia is abolished by core temperature clamping: neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms. International Journal of Hyperthermia. 2004;20(5):503-16.
- Sakurai Y, Umemoto Y, Kawasaki T, Kojima D, Kinoshita T, Yamashiro M, et al. Head-out immersion in hot water does not increase serum CXCL1 in healthy men. Trends in Immunotherapy. 2017;1(1):28-34.
- Pedersen L, Pilegaard H, Hansen J, Brandt C, Adser H, Hidalgo J, et al. Exercise‐induced liver chemokine CXCL‐1 expression is linked to muscle‐derived interleukin‐6 expression. The Journal of physiology. 2011;589(6):1409-20.
- Welc SS, Judge AR, Clanton TL. Skeletal muscle interleukin-6 regulation in hyperthermia. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. 2013;305(4):C406-C13.
- Starkie R, Hargreaves M, Rolland J, Febbraio MA. Heat stress, cytokines, and the immune response to exercise. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2005;19(5):404-12.
- Leicht CA, Kouda K, Umemoto Y, Banno M, Kinoshita T, Moriki T, et al. Hot water immersion induces an acute cytokine response in cervical spinal cord injury. European journal of applied physiology. 2015;115(11):2243-52.
- Welty FK, Alfaddagh A, Elajami TK. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome. Translational research. 2016;167(1):257-80.
- Saltiel AR, Olefsky JM. Inflammatory mechanisms linking obesity and metabolic disease. journal of clinical investigation. 2017;127(1):1-4.
- Hoekstra S, Bishop N, Faulkner S, Bailey S, Leicht C. Acute and chronic effects of hot water immersion on inflammation and metabolism in sedentary, overweight adults. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md: 1985). 2018;125(6):2008.
- Ghahramani M. Comparison of The Effect of Aerobic Training in Sea Water and Beach on Endothelial Function, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Overweight Elderly Men. Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport Physiology. 2020;7(2):73-80.
- Azali Alamdari K, Rohani H. Effects of normobaric and hypobaric endurance training on metabolic risk factors in midlife men. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2015;17(2):113-23.
- Cunha RM, Vilaça-Alves J, Noleto MV, Silva JS, Costa AM, Silva CNF, et al. Acute blood pressure response in hypertensive elderly women immediately after water aerobics exercise: A crossover study. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. 2017;39(1):17-22.
- Yamashiro M, Nishimura Y, Mikami Y, Kouda K, Sakurai Y, Yoshioka I, et al. Attenuation of core temperature elevation and interleukin-6 excretion during head-out hot water immersion in elderly people. J Phys Ther Sci. 2020;32(7):444-8.
- Bae JH, Kim LK, Min SH, Ahn CH, Cho YM. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2018;9(5):1110-8.
- Alizadeh L, Tofighi A, Tolouei Azar J. The Effect of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) On Serum Irisin, FGF21 and Glycemic Indices in Type 2 Diabetic Women. Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport Physiology. 2019;6(2):17-24.
- Azali Alamdari K, Rohani H, Bagheri Z. Effects of the two consecutive anaerobic exercise sessions on leukocyte subsets distribution, blood lactate level and anaerobic power in female athletes with controlling the confounding effect from plasma shift. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2020;42(4):362-72.
- Azali -Alamdari K, Saberi Y. The Effects of Aerobic Training on Blood ACHE and BCHE Activities and cardiometabolic Risk Factors Level in Midlife Women. Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology. 2019;15(29):105-18.
- Nunemaker CS, Chung HG, Verrilli GM, Corbin KL, Upadhye A, Sharma PR. Increased serum CXCL1 and CXCL5 are linked to obesity, hyperglycemia, and impaired islet function. J Endocrinol. 2014;222(2):267-76.
- Davy KP, Seals DR. Total blood volume in healthy young and older men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1994;76(5):2059-62.
- Welc SS, Morse DA, Mattingly AJ, Laitano O, King MA, Clanton TL. The Impact of Hyperthermia on Receptor-Mediated Interleukin-6 Regulation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle. PloS one. 2016;11(2):e0148927-e.
- Messa GA, Piasecki M, Rittweger J, McPhee JS, Koltai E, Radak Z, et al. Absence of an aging‐related increase in fiber type grouping in athletes and non‐athletes. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2020;30(11):2057-69.
- Liang AP, Drazick AT, Gao H, Li Y. Skeletal muscle secretion of IL-6 is muscle type specific: Ex vivo evidence. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2018;505(1):146-50.
- Starkie RL, Hargreaves M, Lambert DL, Proietto J, Febbraio MA. Effect of temperature on muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in humans. Experimental physiology. 1999;84(4):775-84.
- McCracken E, Monaghan M, Sreenivasan S. Pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome. Clinics in dermatology. 2018;36(1):14-20.
- Han TS, Lean MEJ. Metabolic syndrome. Medicine. 2015;43(2):80-7.
- Mattingly AJ, Laitano O, Clanton TL. Epinephrine stimulates CXCL1 IL-1α, IL-6 secretion in isolated mouse limb muscle. 2017;5(23).
- Fujishima K, Shimizu T, Ogaki T, Hotta N, Kanaya S, Shono T, et al. Thermoregulatory responses to low-intensity prolonged swimming in water at various temperatures and treadmill walking on land. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science. 2001;20(3):199.
- Faulkner SH, Jackson S, Fatania G, Leicht CA. The effect of passive heating on heat shock protein 70 and interleukin-6: A possible treatment tool for metabolic diseases? Temperature. 2017;4(3):292-304.
- Gleeson M, Bishop NC, Stensel DJ, Lindley MR, Mastana SS, Nimmo MA. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Nature reviews immunology. 2011;11(9):607-15.
- de Jong AJ, Pollastro S, Kwekkeboom JC, Andersen SN, Dorjée AL, Bakker AM, et al. Functional and phenotypical analysis of IL‐6‐secreting CD4+ T cells in human adipose tissue. European journal of immunology. 2018;48(3):471-81.
- Matsuzawa Y, Funahashi T, Nakamura T. The concept of metabolic syndrome: contribution of visceral fat accumulation and its molecular mechanism. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2011;18(8):629-39.
- Mohammadi M, Gozashti MH, Aghadavood M, Mehdizadeh MR, Hayatbakhsh MM. Clinical significance of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Reports of biochemistry & molecular biology. 2017;6(1):74.
- Rezaie N, Abedi B, Fatolahi H. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Aquatic and Land Exercise Training on Leptin, Resistin, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Women. Research in Medicine. 2019;43(2):83-9.
- Kurobe K, Kousaka A, Ogita F, Matsumoto N. Metabolic responses to exercise on land and in water following glucose ingestion. Clinical physiology and functional imaging. 2018;38(2):227-32.
- Hargreaves M, Angus D, Howlett K, Conus N, Febbraio M. Effect of heat stress on glucose kinetics during exercise. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md: 1985). 1996;81(4):1594.
- Saini A, Faulkner S, Moir H, Warwick P, King J, Nimmo MA. Interleukin‐6 in combination with the interleukin‐6 receptor stimulates glucose uptake in resting human skeletal muscle independently of insulin action. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2014;16(10):931-6.
- Babaei P, Azali Alamdari K. Effects of endurance training and detraining on serum BDNF and memory performance in middle aged males with metabolic syndrome. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2013;15(2):132-42.