Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 Phd student in exercise physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Shiraz, Iran

2 Associate Professor of exercise physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Shiraz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of exercise physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Shiraz, Iran

4 full Professor of exercise physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Shiraz, Iran


Objective: In addition to daily calorie intake, vitamin D and iron as micronutrients are the most important in the diet of athletes, especially in adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition education intervention on total caloric intake, resting levels and iron and vitamin D intake in competitive adolescent soccer players. Methods: The subjects of this study consisted of 63 competitive adolescent soccer players in the country's premier league. In order to achieve the total caloric intake and the amount of micronutrients, the subjects were recalled for three days, then blood samples were taken to achieve resting amounts of vitamin D and iron. Nutrition education intervention group (n = 41) and control group (n = 22) The experimental group was trained for 4 weeks (8 sessions of 30 minutes of applied nutrition educating followed by 10 weeks of face-to-face counseling) by attending the website and online. To examine changes within and between groups of analysis Mixed variance and dependent and independent t-tests were used. Results: The results of intragroup mixed analysis of variance test on total calories, resting levels of vitamin D and vitamin D in the diet were significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Nutritional education intervention significantly increases total caloric intake, carbohydrate and protein intake, resting levels of vitamin D and intake of vitamin D in the diet of competitive adolescent soccer players, but on resting values ​​and Dietary iron intake has no effect.


Main Subjects

  1. 1.Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. American college of sports medicine joint position statement. nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2016;48(3):543-68.

    2.Desbrow B, McCormack J, Burke LM, Cox GR, Fallon K, Hislop M, et al. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2014;24(5):570-84.

    3.Do Amaral e Melo GR, de Carvalho Silva Vargas F, dos Santos Chagas CM, Toral N. Nutritional interventions for adolescents using information and communication technologies (ICTs): A systematic review. PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0184509.

    4.Jeukendrup A, Cronin L. Nutrition and elite young athletes. The Elite Young Athlete. 2011;56:47-58.

    5.Patton-Lopez MM, Manore MM, Branscum A, Meng Y, Wong SS. Changes in sport nutrition knowledge, attitudes/beliefs and behaviors following a two-year sport nutrition education and life-skills intervention among high school soccer players. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1636.

    6.Zuniga KE, Downey DL, McCluskey R, Rivers C. Need for and interest in a sports nutrition mobile device application among division I collegiate athletes. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2017; 27(1):43-9.

    7.Lee S. Development of an evidence-based nutritional intervention protocol for adolescent athletes. Journal of exercise nutrition & biochemistry. 2019;23(3):29.

    8.Aerenhouts D, Deriemaeker P, Hebbelinck M, Clarys P. Dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in adolescent sprint athletes: a three year follow-up study. Journal of Food Research. 2012;1(1):277.

    9.Aerenhouts D, Hebbelinck M, Poortmans JR, Clarys P. Nutritional habits of Flemish adolescent sprint athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2008;18(5):509-23.

    10.Carl RL, Johnson MD, Martin TJ. Promotion of healthy weight-control practices in young athletes. Pediatrics. 2017;140(3).

    11.Torun B. Energy requirements of children and adolescents. Public health nutrition. 2005;8(7a):968-93.

    1. Muia EN, Wright HH, Onywera VO, Kuria EN. Adolescent elite Kenyan runners are at risk for energy deficiency, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2016;34(7):598-606.

    13.Devlin BL, Leveritt MD, Kingsley M, Belski R. Dietary intake, body composition, and nutrition knowledge of Australian football and soccer players: implications for sports nutrition professionals in practice. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2017;27(2):130-8.

    1. Naughton RJ, Drust B, O’Boyle A, Morgans R, Abayomi J, Davies IG, et al. Daily distribution of carbohydrate, protein and fat intake in elite youth academy soccer players over a 7-day training period. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2016;26(5):473-80.
    2. Bingham ME, Borkan ME, Quatromoni PA. Sports nutrition advice for adolescent athletes: a time to focus on food. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2015;9(6):398-402.
    3. García-Rovés PM, García-Zapico P, Patterson ÁM, Iglesias-Gutiérrez E. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice. Nutrients. 2014;6(7):2697-717.
    4. Owens DJ, Allison R, Close GL. Vitamin D and the athlete: current perspectives and new challenges. Sports medicine. 2018;48(1):3-16.
    5. Abrams GD, Feldman D, Safran MR. Effects of vitamin D on skeletal muscle and athletic performance. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2018;26(8):278-85.
    6. Todd JJ, McSorley EM, Pourshahidi LK, Madigan SM, Laird E, Healy M, et al. Vitamin D 3 supplementation using an oral spray solution resolves deficiency but has no effect on VO 2 max in Gaelic footballers: results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European journal of nutrition. 2017;56(4):1577-87.
    7. Aydın CG, Dinçel YM, Arıkan Y, Taş SK, Deniz S. The effects of indoor and outdoor sports participation and seasonal changes on vitamin D levels in athletes. SAGE open medicine. 2019 .205031211983748.
    8. Villacis D, Yi A, Jahn R, Kephart CJ, Charlton T, Gamradt SC, et al. Prevalence of abnormal vitamin D levels among division I NCAA athletes. Sports Health. 2014;6(4):340-7.
    9. Mehran N, Schulz BM, Neri BR, Robertson WJ, Limpisvasti O. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in professional hockey players. Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2016;4(12):2325967116677512.
    10. Shoemaker ME, Gillen ZM, McKay BD, Fischer JA, Hansen C, Bohannon NA, et al. Effects of Sports Nutrition Education on Athletic Performance and Iron Status in High School-Aged Youth Athletes.
    11. Peeling P, Sim M, Badenhorst CE, Dawson B, Govus AD, Abbiss CR, et al. Iron status and the acute post-exercise hepcidin response in athletes. PloS one. 2014; 9(3); e 93002).
    12. Murimi MW, Kanyi M, Mupfudze T, Amin MR, Mbogori T, Aldubayan K. Factors influencing efficacy of nutrition education interventions: a systematic review. Journal of nutrition education and behavior. 2017;49(2):142-65. e1.
    13. Tayebi H HA, Saeedpor A, Razeghi S, Nasrollahzadeh J, Vahdat Z, Sohrab G, Hejazi E. Clinical nutrition and diet therapy internship. 4 ed: shahid beheshti university of medical sciences 2016. 545 p.
    14. Slomin J. Sports Nutrition for Young Adults: A Game-Winning Guide to Maximize Performance: ROCKRIDGE Press; 2020.
    15. Fink HH, Mikesky AE. Practical Applications in Sports Nutrition: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2017.
    16. Maughan RJ, Burke LM, Dvorak J, Larson-Meyer DE, Peeling P, Phillips SM, et al. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2018;28(2):104-25.
    17. Riddell MC. The endocrine response and substrate utilization during exercise in children and adolescents. Journal of applied physiology. 2008;105(2):725-33.

    31.Vieth R. Why the minimum desirable serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level should be 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml). Best practice & research Clinical endocrinology & metabolism. 2011;25(4):681-91.

    1. Pampaloni B, Cianferotti L, Gronchi G, Bartolini E, Fabbri S, Tanini A, et al. Growing strong and healthy with Mister bone: an educational program to have strong bones later in life. Nutrients. 2015;7(12):9985-98.
    2. Neyestani T, Hajifaraji M, Omidvar N, Nikooyeh B, Eshraghian M, Shariatzadeh N, et al. Calcium‐vitamin D‐fortified milk is as effective on circulating bone biomarkers as fortified juice and supplement but has less acceptance: a randomised controlled school‐based trial. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2014.27(6); 606-16
    3. Keshtkar A, Ebrahimi M, Khashayar P, Abdollahi Z, Porarram H, Salehi F, et al. Community interventional trial (CITFOMIST) of vitamin D fortified versus non-fortified milk on serum levels of 25 (OH) D in the students of Tehran. Archives of Iranian medicine. 2015;18(5):0-.
    4. Goodman S, Morrongiello B, Meckling K. A randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an online intervention targeting vitamin D intake, knowledge and status among young adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2016;13(1):1-13.
    5. Collins J, Maughan RJ, Gleeson M, Bilsborough J, Jeukendrup A, Morton JP, et al. UEFA expert group statement on nutrition in elite football. Current evidence to inform practical recommendations and guide future research. British journal of sports medicine. 2021;55(8):416-.
    6. Russell R, Beard JL, Cousins RJ, Dunn JT, Ferland G, Hambidge K, et al. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine. 2001.
    7. Elias SSM, Saad HA, Taib MNM, Jamil Z. Effects of sports nutrition education intervention on sports nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice, and dietary intake of Malaysian team sports athletes. Malaysian journal of nutrition. 2018;24 (1).
    8. Molina-López J, Molina JM, Chirosa LJ, Florea D, Sáez L, Jiménez J, et al. Implementation of a nutrition education program in a handball team; consequences on nutritional status. Nutricion hospitalaria. 2013;28(4):1065-76.
    9. Martinelli L. The implementation and evaluation of a nutrition education programme for university elite athletes. Progress in Nutrition. 2013;15(2):71-80.
    10. Nowacka E, Leszczyńska T, Kopeć A, Hojka D. Nutritional behavior of Polish canoeist's athletes: The interest of nutritional education. Science & Sports. 2016;31(4):e79-e91.
    11. Abood DA, Black DR, Birnbaum RD. Nutrition education intervention for college female athletes. Journal of nutrition education and behavior. 2004;36(3):135-9.
    12. Rossi FE, Landreth A, Beam S, Jones T, Norton L, Cholewa JM. The effects of a sports nutrition education intervention on nutritional status, sport nutrition knowledge, body composition, and performance during off season training in NCAA Division I baseball players. Journal of sports science & medicine. 2017;16(1):60.
    13. Malczewska-Lenczowska J, Orysiak J, Szczepańska B, Turowski D, Burkhard-Jagodzińska K, Gajewski J. Reticulocyte and erythocyte hypochromia markers in detection of iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes. Biology of sport. 2017;34(2):111.
    14. Desbrow B. Youth athlete development and nutrition. Sports Medicine. 2021:1-10.
    15. Pounds SLIW, Edition TG, Frdric F. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 2014.
    16. Abbaspour N, Hurrell R, Kelishadi R. Review on iron and its importance for human health. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2014;19(2):164.
    17. Auersperger I, Škof B, Leskošek B, Knap B, Jerin A, Lainscak M. Exercise-induced changes in iron status and hepcidin response in female runners. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58090.
    18. Molina-López J, Molina JM, Chirosa LJ, Florea D, Sáez L, Jiménez J, et al. Implementación de un programa de educación nutricional en un equipo de balonmano: consecuencias en estado nutricional. Nutrición Hospitalaria. 2013;28(4):1065-76.
    19. Fallon KE. Screening for haematological and iron-related abnormalities in elite athletes—analysis of 576 cases. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2008;11(3):329-36.