Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license

Authors

1 1. PhD student ، Department of Exercise physiology ، Kermanshah Branch، Islamic Azad University، Kermanshah، Iran

2 Assistant Professor، Department of Exercise Physiology، Kermanshah Branch، Islamic Azad University، Kermanshah، Iran (Corresponding Author)

3 Assistant Professor، Department of Corrective Exercises ، Kermanshah Branch ، Islamic Azad University ، Kermanshah ، Iran

4 Associate Professor , Department of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital، Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences ، Kermanshah , Iran

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of six-months of combined care program with garlic supplementation on coagulation factors (INR, PPT, PT) in middle-aged men with DVT. The present study was a quasi-experimental with a clinical trial design (code: IRCT20210718051924N1). Subjects were 40 men (age: 51.50 ±4.01 years, fat percentage: 28.63 ±3.24) with a history of at-least 3 years of DVT who were taking warfarin randomly divided into four groups: Combined-exercise, Combined-exercise +garlic, Garlic and Control. Combined-exercise for 24 weeks, 3 sessions per-week, first resistance training (50 to 60% 1RM) and then aerobic training (55 to 60% of the reserve-heart-rate). 1200mg daily garlic supplement was used in the form of capsules at ten o'clock in the morning. PT, PTT and INR factors were measured before and after 24 weeks. Two-way analysis of variance, paired t-test and Tukey post-hoc test were used (P<0.05). The results showed that both combined-exercise +garlic and consumption of garlic increased the PT (garlic 3.3%, p=0.004; exercise +supplement 13.3%, P=0.001) and INR (garlic 2%, p=0.013; exercise +supplement 46%, p=0.001) had a significant effect, also combined-exercise +garlic on the PTT 1.5% (p=0.014) had a significantly effect. But this wasn’t of effects in the combined-exercises (PT: p=0.355, INR: p=0.259, PTT: p=0.448) and the group Garlic was-not significant in PTT (p=0.504). It is recommended to use combined exercises with garlic consumption because of its effect on PT and INR and the important role of these factors in rebalancing homeostasis.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Terra MF, Pedrosa DG, Zoppi CC, Werneck CC, Vicente CP. Physical exercises decreases thrombus and neointima formation in atherosclerotic mice. Thrombosis research. 2019;175:21-31.
  2. Evensen LH, Isaksen T, Hindberg K, Brækkan SK, Hansen JB. Repeated assessments of physical activity and risk of incident venous thromboembolism. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2018;16(11):2208-17.
  3. Gram AS, Bladbjerg E-M, Skov J, Ploug T, Sjödin A, Rosenkilde M, et al. Three months of strictly controlled daily endurance exercise reduces thrombin generation and fibrinolytic risk markers in younger moderately overweight men. European journal of applied physiology. 2015;115(6):1331-8.
  4. Yamamoto J, Ijiri Y, Ikarugi H, Otsui K, Inoue N, Sakariassen KS. Prevention of thrombotic disorders by antithrombotic diet and exercise: evidence by using global thrombosis tests. Future science OA. 2018;4(4):FSO285.
  5. Sandrini L, Ieraci A, Amadio P, Zarà M, Mitro N, Lee FS, et al. Physical exercise affects adipose tissue profile and prevents arterial thrombosis in BDNF Val66Met mice. Cells. 2019;8(8):875.
  6. Kearon C, Ageno W, Cannegieter S, Cosmi B, Geersing G, Kyrle P. Categorization of patients as having provoked or unprovoked venous thromboembolism: guidance from the SSC of ISTH. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis: JTH. 2016;14(7):1480-3.
  7. Kim L, Lim Y, Park S-y, Kim YJ, Kwon O, Lee JH, et al. A comparative study of the antithrombotic effect through activated endothelium of garlic powder and tomato extracts using a rodent model of collagen and epinephrine induced thrombosis. Food science and biotechnology. 2018;27(5):1513-8.
  8. Menon H, Pillai A, Aussenberg-Rodriguez J, Ambrose J, Youssef I, Griffiths EA, et al. Cost reduction associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia panel ordering for enoxaparin versus heparin for prophylactic and therapeutic use: A retrospective analysis in a community hospital setting. Avicenna journal of medicine. 2018;8(4):133.
  9. Hemmati R, Dabbagh Nikukheslat S, Pourrahim Ghouroghchi A. The effect of acute endurance exercise after three different doses of garlic supplementation on coagulating factor VIII, fibrinogen and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in young athletic men. Daneshvar Medicine: Basic and Clinical Research Journal. 2021;28(5):63-74.
  10. Fakhar H, Tayer AH. Effect of the garlic pill in comparison with Plavix on platelet aggregation and bleeding time. Iranian journal of pediatric hematology and oncology. 2012;2(4):146.
  11. Gholami F, Ebrahim K, Ahmadizad S, Ebrahimi H. The Effect of Garlic Supplementation on the Main Determinants of Hemorheology in Inactive Individuals Who Underwent Endurance Training. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2013;34(5):53-9.
  12. Saastamoinen M, Särkijärvi S, Hyyppä S. Garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation improves respiratory health but has increased risk of lower hematologic values in horses. Animals. 2019;9(1):13.
  13. Womack C, Lawton D, Redmond L, Todd M, Hargens T. The effects of acute garlic supplementation on the fibrinolytic and vasoreactive response to exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2015;12(1):1-8.
  14. San Jose MCZ, Apaga NEP, Florento L, Gan RN. Effects of aerobic exercise and training on coagulation, platelet aggregation, and plasma lipids. Vascular Disease Prevention. 2005;2(2):145-50.
  15. Hilberg T, Gläser D, Reckhart C, Prasa D, Stürzebecher J, Gabriel HH. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis after long-duration treadmill exercise controlled by individual anaerobic threshold. European journal of applied physiology. 2003;90(5):639-42.
  16. Naderi R, Mohaddes G, Mohammadi M, Alihemmati A, Khamaneh A, Ghyasi R, et al. The effect of garlic and voluntary exercise on cardiac angiogenesis in diabetes: the role of MiR-126 and MiR-210. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia. 2018;112:154-62.
  17. Kupchak BR, Creighton BC, Aristizabal JC, Dunn-Lewis C, Volk BM, Ballard KD, et al. Beneficial effects of habitual resistance exercise training on coagulation and fibrinolytic responses. Thrombosis research. 2013;131(6):e227-e34.
  18. Amini A, Kordi MR, Gaini AA, Ahmadi A, Ayoubian H, Lahoorpour F. The effects of aerobic exercises on coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in inactive aged men. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2011;15(4):25-32.
  19. Borch KH, Hansen-Krone I, Braekkan SK, Mathiesen EB, Njolstad I, Wilsgaard T, et al. Physical activity and risk of venous thromboembolism. The Tromsø study. Haematologica. 2010;95(12):2088.
  20. Karimnia Saheb V, Tofighi A. The effect of resistance training on coagulation and fibrinolysis factors in sedentary obese children. Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology. 2019;14(28):29-40.
  21. Francis RM, Romeyn CL, Coughlin AM, Nagelkirk PR, Womack CJ, Lemmer JT. Age and aerobic training status effects on plasma and skeletal muscle tPA and PAI-1. European journal of applied physiology. 2014;114(6):1229-38.
  22. Lamprecht M, Moussalli H, Ledinski G, Leschnik B, Schlagenhauf A, Koestenberger M, et al. Effects of a single bout of walking exercise on blood coagulation parameters in obese women. Journal of applied physiology. 2013;115(1):57-63.
  23. Ahmadizad S, Movahedi Moghadam A, Jamshidi Z, Rezaeimanesh D. The Responses of Fibrinolytic Factors to Different Resistance Exercise Protocols. Sport Physiology. 2018;10(37):139-52.
  24. Bompa TO, Di Pasquale M, Cornacchia L. Serious strength training: Human Kinetics; 2012.
  25. Patelis N, Karaolanis G, Kouvelos GN, Hart C, Metheiken S. The effect of exercise on coagulation and fibrinolysis factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2016;241(15):1699-707.
  26. Ried K, Travica N, Sali A. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: The AGE at Heart trial. Integrated blood pressure control. 2016;9:9.
  27. Ahmadizad S, Rahmani H, Khosravi N, Falakdin Z, Connes P, Daraei A. Acute responses of platelet count and ADP-induced platelet aggregation to different high intensity interval exercise modes. Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation. 2020;75(4):467-74.
  28. Piccione G, Fazio F, Giudice E, Grasso F, Caola G. Exercise-Induced Changes in the Clotting Times and Fibrinolytic Activity during Official 1600 and 2 000 Meters Trot Races in the Standardbred Horses. Acta Veterinaria Brno. 2005;74(4):509-14.
  29. Bhardwaj K, Verma MK, Verma N, Bhardwaj S, Mishra S. Effect of long term supplementation of active garlic allicin in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. 2017. 2017;2(3):4.