Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Corresponding Author,Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.


Introduction: This study aimed to determine the effect of eight weeks of combined training and vitamin D supplementation on some indicators of liver damage, performance, and depression of women addicted to methamphetamine and heroin.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental study design, 32 women addicted to methamphetamine and heroin, with an average age of 28.34 ± 6.7 years, an average weight of 62.06 ± 10.24 kg, and BMI of 24.10 ± 2.93 were voluntarily selected from Fereshteh quit addiction camp in Tabriz and were randomly divided into four groups of Training, Training + Supplement (vitamin D, 2000 IU per day), Supplement, and control. The combined training group program consisted of six circular resistance movements with an intensity of 40–70% of one-repetition maximum in stations and aerobic training with an intensity of 50–70% of heart rate reserve in the form of 5-minute aerobic intervals for eight weeks and three sessions per week. Before and after the training protocol, blood samples were taken from the volunteers to measure ALT, AST, and ALP enzymes. Cravings, depression, sports performance, and muscle endurance were also measured. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to check the normal distribution of the data, and the Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA tests with Bonferroni correction were used to compare the groups at a significance level of α<0.05.
Results: Liver AST and ALP enzymes showed a significant decrease in the Training + Supplement group compared with other groups (P=0.03). But ALT enzyme did not decrease significantly in all groups (P<0.05). Depression (P=0.01), craving (P=0.025), 600 m running, and muscular endurance were significantly improved in the Training group compared with the control group (P=0.001), but there was no significant difference in the supplement group compared with the control group (P <0.05).
Conclusion: Combined training along with Vitamin D supplementation can have beneficial effects on reducing liver damage and depression, and increasing muscle performance and endurance in addicted women.


Main Subjects

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