The effect of eight weeks of resistance training and coenzyme Q10 supplement on interleukin 4 and 10 levels and functional indices of skilled softball players

Document Type : Research Paper


1 isfahan

2 . Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran


Aim: The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of resistance training and coenzyme Q10 supplement on interleukin 4 and 10 levels and functional indices of skilled softball players.
Methodology: Twenty females Softball players from Isfahan were selected by available sampling method and randomly assigned into two groups of 10 players (experimental group; Q10 + resistance training) and (control group; placebo + resistance training). The intervention consisted of eight weeks of Q10 supplementation (a 200 mg capsule) and 2 sessions per week of resistance training along with specialized softball exercises. Before and after the 8-week intervention, agility, speed, vertical jump, sit-ups, and hand-grip power were evaluated, as well as the blood sampling was obtained from athletes
Results: Speed (P = 0.04 experimental; P = 0.02 control), agility (P = 0.03 experimental; P = 0.03 control), hand-grip power (P = 0.009 experimental; P = 0.01 control), sit-ups (P = 0.001 experimental; P = 0.003 control) and lactate dehydrogenase levels (P = 0.03 experimental; P = 0.03 control) significantly improved in both groups; however, Sargent's jump (P = 0.10 experimental; P = 0.89 control), creatine kinase (P = 0.67 experimental; P = 0.66 control), interleukin-4 (P = 0.32 experimental; P = 0.33 control) and interleukin-10 (P = 0.97 experimental; P = 0.08 control) did not alter in either group.
Conclusion: It appears that resistance training with Q10 supplementation along with specialized softball exercises is useful in developing some functional variables, especially abdominal endurance.


Main Subjects

1. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2004. 36(4): p. 674-88.
2. Chen TC, Hsieh SS. Effects of a 7-day eccentric training period on muscle damage and inflammation. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2001. 33(10): p. 1732-8.
3. Farzanegi P, MohammadZadeh M. Interactive effect of exercise training with ω-3 supplementation on resting levels of TNF-α and IL-10 in Karat Men. Hormozgan Medical Journal, 2014. 18(1): p. 26-34. (in persian)
4. Nieman DC, Konrad M, Henson DA, Kennerly K, Shanely RA, Wallner-Liebmann SJ.
261 ... تأثیر هشت هفته تمرین مقاومتی توانی و مصرف مکمل کیوتن بر میزان اینترلوکین 4 و 10
2012. Variance in the acute inflammatory response to prolonged cycling is linked to exercise intensity. J Interferon Cytokine Res.32 (1):12–17
5- Rethorst CD, Toups MS, Greer TL, Nakonezny PA, Carmody TJ, Grannemann BD, et al. Pro-inflammatory cytokines as predictors of antidepressant effects of exercise in major depressive disorder. Molecular psychiatry, 2013. 18(10): p. 1119-24.
6. Babbitt DM, Diaz KM, Feairheller DL, Sturgeon KM, Perkins AM, Veerabhadrappa P, et al. Endothelial activation microparticles and inflammation status improve with exercise training in African Americans. International journal of hypertension, 2013. 2013: p. 1-8.
7. Lacraz S, Nicod LP, Chicheportiche R, Welgus HG, Dayer J-M. IL-10 inhibits metalloproteinase and stimulates TIMP-1 production in human mononuclear phagocytes. The Journal of clinical investigation, 1995. 96(5): p. 2304-10.
8. Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Cellular and molecular immunology. 8th ed. Philadelphia. PA: Saunder Elsevier, 2007.
9. Vassilakopoulos T, Karatza M-H, Katsaounou P, Kollintza A, Zakynthinos S, Roussos C. Antioxidants attenuate the plasma cytokine response to exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 2003. 94(3): p. 1025-32.
10. Cordero MD, Cano-García FJ, Alcocer-Gómez E, De Miguel M, Sánchez-Alcázar JA. Oxidative stress correlates with headache symptoms in fibromyalgia: coenzyme Q10 effect on clinical improvement. PloS one, 2012. 7(4): p. e35677.
11. Hong KH, Cho ML, Min SY, Shin YJ, Yoo SA, Choi JJ, et al. Effect of interleukin‐4 on vascular endothelial growth factor production in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 2007. 147(3): p. 573-9.
12. Rahimi R, Nejad HS. Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate Supplementation on IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1 during Resistance Exercise in Athletes. Preprints, 2017: p. 1-10.
13. Speretta GFF, Rosante MC, Duarte FO, Leite RD, Lino ADdS, Andre RA, et al. The effects of exercise modalities on adiposity in obese rats. Clinics, 2012. 67(12): p. 1469-77.
14. Habibi A, Abolfathi F, Nagafian N. [The effect of aerobic interval training on IL-6 and IL-10 serum concentration in women with type II diabetes ]. Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences, 2016. 19(7): p. 36-45.(in persian)
15. Kon M, Tanabe K, Akimoto T, Kimura F, Tanimura Y, Shimizu K, et al. Reducing exercise-induced muscular injury in kendo athletes with supplementation of coenzyme Q 10. British journal of nutrition, 2008. 100(4): p. 903-9.
16. Cooke M, Iosia M, Buford T, Shelmadine B, Hudson G, Kerksick C, et al. Effects of acute and 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise performance in both trained and untrained individuals. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2008. 5(1): p. 8.
17. Moeini SM, Biglari G, Soheili S. Response of cortisol tnf-α, and plasma lactate levels, to the coenzyme q10 during exercise at a constant intensity in active females. Physiology of Sport and Physical Activity, 2016. 9(1): p. 1307-12.(in persian)
262 علوم زیستی ورزشی، دورة 13 ، شمارة 2، تابستان 1400
18. Changizi M, Ebrahimi M, SM. A. [Acute effects of coenzyme Q10 supplement on serum parameters of oxidative stress following one session of resistance training in male college athletes (In Persian)]. Koomesh, 2015. 16(4): p. 603-10.(in persian)
19- Hanachi P, Jalalvandi B, Nazarali P, Naghibi S. [The effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation and aerobic training on HRDP and VO2max Women Active (In Persian)]. Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences, 2014. 17(1): p. 12-24.(in persian)
20. Afshan S, Roshan VD. Comparing the effect of two resistance training with and without supplement ginger on inflammatory markers. Res Med, 2016. 40(3): p. 118-24.
21. Shirvani H, Nikbakht H, Ebrahim Kh GA. The effects of soccer specific exercise and Taurine supplementation on serum cytokine response in male elite soccer players. Ann Biol Res, 2012. 3(9): p. 4420-6.(in persian)
22. Rashidlamir A, Fazolahzade-Mousavi R, Mohammad Rahimi G. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Exercise on the Plasma Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Life Guards: A Pilot Study. Health Education and Health Promotion, 2019. 7(2): p. 59-63.(in persian)
23. O'Connor M-F, Motivala SJ, Valladares EM, Olmstead R, Irwin MR. Sex differences in monocyte expression of IL-6: role of autonomic mechanisms. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 2007. 293(1): p. R145-R51.(in persian)
24. Raygan F, Rezavandi Z, Dadkhah Tehrani S, Farrokhian A, Asemi Z. The effects of coenzyme Q10administration on glucose homeostasis parameters, lipid profiles, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. Eur J Nutr. 2015; 55(8):1–8( .in persian)
25. Esser N, Paquot N, Scheen AJ. Anti-inflammatory agents to treat or prevent type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2015; 24(3): 283–307. doi: 10. 1517/13543784.2015.974804 PMID: 25345753
26. Nesami BN, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Najarzadeh A, Salehifar E. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Pro-Inflammatory Factors and Adiponectin in Mildly Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2015; 85(3–4): 156–164. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000234 PMID: 26780394( .in persian)
27. Soltani R , Muvahedi A. A review of the therapeutic effects of coenzyme Q10 on Parkinson's disease, Scientific conference of nutrition students.Tehran.2016; (in persian)
28. Farsi F, Mohammadshahi M, Alavinejad P, Rezazadeh A, Zarei M, Engali KA, Functions of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Markers of Systemic Inflammation, and Adipokines in Patients Affected by Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. Jm Coll Nutr. 2016; 35(4): 346–353. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1021057 PMID: 26156412۶-Patients Affected by Nonalcoholic
Fatty Liver Disease: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled,Randomized Clinical Trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2016; 35(4): 346–353. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1021057 PMID:26156412 ( .in persian)
263 ... تأثیر هشت هفته تمرین مقاومتی توانی و مصرف مکمل کیوتن بر میزان اینترلوکین 4 و 10
29. Lee BJ, Tseng YF, Yen CH, Lin PT. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation (300 mg/day) on antioxidation and anti-inflammation in coronary artery disease patients during statins therapy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr J. 2013; 12(1): 142. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-142 PMID: 24192015
30. Parchmann CJ, McBride JM. Relationship between functional movement screen and athletic performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2011. 25(12): p. 3378-84.
31. Mehrdad Fathi, Arash Mohammadi, Neda Badri, MohammadRahimi. GR. Implementation and measurement in physical education tests. 1st ed. Sabzevar: Beyhagh, 2020.(in persian)
32. Hemayat Talab R. Evaluation and measurement in physical education and sports science. Tehran: Elm va Harkat, 2013.(in persian)
33. Ali Asghar Mazani MRH, Amir Hossain Haghighi, Nosratollah Hedayatipour. [The Effect of 12 Weeks of Strength-Power Training with Different Loads on Muscular and Performing Functions in Soccer Players (In Persian)]. Journal of Sport Bioscience, 2017. 9(3): p. 315-32.(in persian)
34. Brzycki M. A practical approach to strength training: Masters Press Grand Rapids, MI; 1989.
35. Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Totsuka M, Sato K, Sugawara K. 2002. Systemic
inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics. Exerc Immunol Rev.8:6–.
36. Baranchi M, Kazemi A, Aghaalinejad H, Esfahani M, R. D. Different Responses of Interleukin-10 and Cortisol to Three Types of Sport Activity. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 2014. 23(2): p. 1-11.
37. Forti LN, Van Roie E, Njemini R, Coudyzer W, Beyer I, Delecluse C, et al. Effects of resistance training at different loads on inflammatory markers in young adults. European journal of applied physiology, 2017. 117(3): p. 511-9.
38. Fatouros I, Chatzinikolaou A, Paltoglou G, Petridou A, Avloniti A, A. J. Acute resistance exercise results in catecholaminergic rather than hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis stimulation during exercise in young men. Stress Amst Neth, 2010. 13: p. 461-8.
39. Kiyani N, Rahimi E, Hosseini SA, Z. M. The investigation of eight weeks of resistance training effect on 17-18-year-old boys’ interleukin-10, lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Journal of Sport Bioscience Researches, 2014. 4(13): p. 39-50.(in persian)
40. Kjølhede T, Dalgas U, Gade AB, Bjerre M, Stenager E, Petersen T, et al. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 2016. 26(7): p. 824-34.
41. Ford ES. Does exercise reduce inflammation? Physical activity and C-reactive protein among US adults. Epidemiology, 2002. p. 561-8.
42. Toussirot E, Binda D, Gueugnon C, Dumoulin G. Adiponectin in autoimmune diseases. Current medicinal chemistry, 2012. 19(32): p. 5474-80.
43. Ribeiro F, Alves AJ, Duarte JA, Oliveira J. 2010. Is exercise training an effective therapy targeting endothelial dysfunction and vascular wall inflammation? Int J Cardiol.141(3):214–21. doi: 10.1016/j. ijcard.2009.09.548. [PubMed: 19896741]
264 علوم زیستی ورزشی، دورة 13 ، شمارة 2، تابستان 1400
44. Pournot H, Bieuzen F, Duffield R, Lepretre P-M, Cozzolino C, Hausswirth C. Short term effects of various water immersions on recovery from exhaustive intermittent exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 2011. 111(7): p. 1287-95.
45. Nakhzari Khodakheir J, Haghighi A, Hamedinia M, Nikkhah K. The Effects of Combined Exercise Training with Aerobic Dominant and Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Serum Levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in Patient with Multiple Sclerosis. Armaghane danesh, 2018. 22(6): p. 702-13. in persian
46. Heredia JE, Mukundan L, Chen FM, Mueller AA, Deo RC, Locksley RM, et al. Type 2 innate signals stimulate fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate muscle regeneration. Cell, 2013. 153(2): p. 376-88.
47. Deng B, Wehling-Henricks M, Villalta SA, Wang Y, Tidball JG. IL-10 triggers changes in macrophage phenotype that promote muscle growth and regeneration. The Journal of Immunology, 2012. 189(7): p. 3669-80.
48. Petersen A, Pedersen B. The role of IL-6 in mediating the anti inflammatory. J Physiol Pharmacol, 2006. 57(Suppl 10): p. 43-51.
49. Cheema BSB, Abas H, Smith BC, O’Sullivan AJ, Chan M, Patwardhan A, et al. Effect of resistance training during hemodialysis on circulating cytokines: a randomized controlled trial. European journal of applied physiology, 2011. 111(7): p. 1437-45.
50. Khajehlandi M JM. Effect of One Session of Resistance Training with and without Blood Flow Restriction on Serum Levels of Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Female Athletes. Journal of Clinical and Basic Research, 2018. 2(2): p. 5-10.(in persian)
51. Abdizadeh L, Jafari A, Armanfar M. Effects of short-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation after downhill running in male mountaineers. Science & Sports, 2015, 30(6): p. 328-34.(in persian)
52. Motameni S, TaheriChadorneshin H, Golestani A. Comparing the effects of resistance exercise type on serum levels of oxidative stress and muscle damage markers in resistance-trained women. Sport Sciences for Health, 2020: p. 1-8.(in persian)
53. Atashak S, Baturak K. The effect of BCAA supplementation on serum C-reactive protein and creatine kinase after acute resistance exercise in soccer players. Annals of Biological Research, 2012. 3(3): p. 1569-76.
54. Armanfar M, Jafari A, Dehghan GR, Abdizadeh L. Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise-induced response of inflammatory indicators and blood lactate in male runners. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2015. 29: p. 202.(in persian)
55. Lee B-J, Lin Y-C, Huang Y-C, Ko Y-W, Hsia S, Lin P-T. The relationship between coenzyme Q10, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes activities and coronary artery disease. The Scientific World Journal, 2012; 2012.
56. Parsa N, Hosseini ZS. New Scientific Findings on Multiple Sclerosis Disease. Science Cultivation 2012;2(2):20-8. (in persian)
57. Deminice R, Sicchieri T, Mialich MS, Milani F, Ovidio PP, Jordao AA. Oxidative stress biomarker responses to an acute session of hypertrophy-resistance traditional interval
265 ... تأثیر هشت هفته تمرین مقاومتی توانی و مصرف مکمل کیوتن بر میزان اینترلوکین 4 و 10
training and circuit training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2011. 25(3): p. 798-804.
58. Ghasemi GHA, Marandi SM, Rahimi N, A. B. Comparison of common Taekwondo and plyometric exercises on vertical jump, agility and speed of Taekwondo teenagers. Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 2014. 10(20): p. 35-46.(in persian)
59. Naseri Kooshki M, Haghighi AH, MR. H. A comparison of the effects of plyometric and resistance power training programs on physical performance of volleyball players. Journal of Sport Physiology and Physical Activity, 2015. 8(2): p. 1265-75.
60. Amidian M, Haghighi AH, SA. Hk. The Effects of General Resistance Training and Ballistic Resistance Training on Some of Physical Fitness Factors in Soccer Players. Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 2018. 14(27): p. 123-37.(in persian)
61. Potteiger JA, Lockwood RH, Haub MD, Dolezal BA, Almuzaini KS, Schroeder JM, et al. Muscle power and fiber characteristics following 8 weeks of plyometric training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 1999. 13(3): p. 275-9.
62. Markovic G, Jukic I, Milanovic D, Metikos D. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2007. 21(2): p. 543-9.
63. Loenneke JP, Abe T, Wilson JM, Ugrinowitsch C, Bemben MG. Blood flow restriction: how does it work? Frontiers in physiology, 2012. 3: p. 392.
64. McBride JM, Triplett-McBride T, Davie A, Newton RU. The effect of heavy-vs. light-load jump squats on the development of strength, power, and speed. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2002. 16(1): p. 75-82.
65. Imani M GA. The effect of 6 weeks coenzyme Q10 supplementation on aerobic endurance, peak power, minimum power, average power and fatigue index in football players. Jounal of Food Technology and Nutrition, 2014. 11(44): p. 33-44.(in persian