1. Candow DG, Chilibeck PD. Differences in size, strength, and power of upper and lower body muscle groups in young and older men. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2005;60(2):148-56.
2. Ostler JE, Maurya SK, Dials J, Roof SR, Devor ST, Ziolo MT, et al. Effects of insulin resistance on skeletal muscle growth and exercise capacity in type 2 diabetic mouse models. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014;306(6):E592-E605.
3. Park SW, Goodpaster BH, Lee JS, Kuller LH, Boudreau R, De Rekeneire N, et al. Excessive loss of skeletal muscle mass in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. 2009;32(11):1993-7.
4. Stanford KI, Goodyear LJ. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: molecular mechanisms regulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Advances in physiology education. 2014;38(4):308-14.
5. Gregor MF, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Annual review of immunology. 2011;29:415-45.
6. Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Jama. 2001;286(3):327-34.
7. Tamura Y, Watanabe K, Kantani T, Hayashi J, Ishida N, Kaneki M. Upregulation of circulating IL-15 by treadmill running in healthy individuals: is IL-15 an endocrine mediator of the beneficial effects of endurance exercise? Endocrine journal. 2011;58(3):211-5.
8. González-Álvaro I, Ortiz AM, Tomero EG, Balsa A, Orte J, Suárez PS, et al. The therapeutic blockade of TNF reduces serum levels of interleukin 15 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Reumatología Clínica (English Edition). 2009;5(1):23-7.
9. Nielsen AR, Hojman P, Erikstrup C, Fischer CP, Plomgaard P, Mounier R, et al. Association between interleukin-15 and obesity: interleukin-15 as a potential regulator of fat mass. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008;93(11):4486-93.
10. Atherton P, Smith K. Muscle protein synthesis in response to nutrition and exercise. The Journal of physiology. 2012;590(5):1049-57.
11. Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA. Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2012;8(8):457-65.
12. Loyd C, Magrisso IJ, Haas M, Balusu S, Krishna R, Itoh N, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is required for beneficial effects of exercise during chronic high-fat feeding. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016;121(3):687-98.
13. Aghapour A, Farzanegi P. Effect of six-week aerobic exercise on Chemerin and Resistin concentration in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Electronic physician. 2013;5(1):623.
14. Nicklas BJ, Chmelo E, Delbono O, Carr JJ, Lyles MF, Marsh AP. Effects of resistance training with and without caloric restriction on physical function and mobility in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015 May;101(5):991-9. PubMed PMID: 25762810.
15. Bottaro M, Machado SN, Nogueira W, Scales R, Veloso J. Effect of high versus low-velocity resistance training on muscular fitness and functional performance in older men. European journal of applied physiology. 2007;99(3):257-64.
16. Cannon JG, Pierre BAS. Cytokines in exertion-induced skeletal muscle injury. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 1998;179(1-2):159-68.
17. Helge JW, Stallknecht B, Pedersen BK, Galbo H, Kiens B, Richter EA. The effect of graded exercise on IL‐6 release and glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle. The Journal of physiology. 2003;546(1):299-305.
18. Thompson D, Walhin J-P, Batterham AM, Stokes KA, Cooper AR, Andrews RC. Effect of diet or diet plus physical activity versus usual care on inflammatory markers in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: the Early ACTivity in Diabetes (ACTID) randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2014;3(3):e000828.
19. El-Kader SMA. Aerobic versus resistance exercise training in modulation of insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokine levels in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Journal of Advanced Research. 2011;2(2):179-83.
20. Phillips MD, Flynn MG, McFarlin BK, Stewart LK, Timmerman KL. Resistance training at eight-repetition maximum reduces the inflammatory milieu in elderly women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(2):314-25.
21. Ferreira FC, de Medeiros AI, Nicioli C, Nunes JED, Shiguemoto GE, Prestes J, et al. Circuit resistance training in sedentary women: body composition and serum cytokine levels. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2009;35(2):163-71.
22. Ogawa K, Sanada K, Machida S, Okutsu M, Suzuki K. Resistance exercise training-induced muscle hypertrophy was associated with reduction of inflammatory markers in elderly women. Mediators of inflammation. 2010;2010.
23. García-Unciti M, Izquierdo M, Idoate F, Gorostiaga E, Grijalba A, Ortega-Delgado F, et al. Weight-loss diet alone or combined with progressive resistance training induces changes in association between the cardiometabolic risk profile and abdominal fat depots. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2012;61(4):296-304.
24. Beavers KM, Ambrosius WT, Nicklas BJ, Rejeski WJ. Independent and combined effects of physical activity and weight loss on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight and obese older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2013;61(7):1089-94.
25. Kim J, Shin Y, Moon H. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise on plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, lipids and insulin resistance in obese adolescent. Kor J Spo Sci. 2007;18:1-9.
26. Cho W, Won Y, Moon H. The effect of combined exercise program on inflammation factors in obese middle-aged women. J Sport Leisure Studies. 2009;37:1033-44.
27. Forsythe LK, Wallace JM, Livingstone MBE. Obesity and inflammation: the effects of weight loss. Nutrition research reviews. 2008;21(2):117-33.
28. Khoo J, Dhamodaran S, Chen D-D, Yap S-Y, Chen RY-T, Tian RH-H. Exercise-induced weight loss is more effective than dieting for improving adipokine profile, insulin resistance, and inflammation in obese men. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2015;25(6):566-75.
29. Crane JD, MacNeil LG, Lally JS, Ford RJ, Bujak AL, Brar IK, et al. Exercise‐stimulated interleukin‐15 is controlled by AMPK and regulates skin metabolism and aging. Aging cell. 2015;14(4):625-34.
30. Christiansen T, Paulsen SK, Bruun JM, Pedersen SB, Richelsen B. Exercise training versus diet-induced weight-loss on metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers in obese subjects: a 12-week randomized intervention study. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2010;298(4):E824-E31.
31. Rinnov A, Yfanti C, Nielsen S, Åkerström TC, Peijs L, Zankari A, et al. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects. Endocrine. 2014;45(2):271-8.
32. Song W, Kim D, Kim H, Oh S, Kim J, Woo S. IL-15 expression in skeletal muscle by resistance exercise training in type 2 diabetic rats. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2012;15:S12.
33. Shamsi MM, Hassan Z, Gharakhanlou R, Quinn L, Azadmanesh K, Baghersad L, et al. Expression of interleukin-15 and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscles of STZ-induced diabetic rats: effect of resistance exercise training. Endocrine. 2014;46(1):60-9.
34. Nielsen AR, Pedersen BK. The biological roles of exercise-induced cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism. 2007;32(5):833-9.
35. Nielsen AR, Mounier R, Plomgaard P, Mortensen OH, Penkowa M, Speerschneider T, et al. Expression of interleukin‐15 in human skeletal muscle–effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition. The Journal of physiology. 2007;584(1):305-12.
36. Quinn LS, Anderson BG, Strait-Bodey L, Wolden-Hanson T. Serum and muscle interleukin-15 levels decrease in aging mice: correlation with declines in soluble interleukin-15 receptor alpha expression. Experimental gerontology. 2010;45(2):106-12.
37. Boström P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L, Lo JC, et al. A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature. 2012;481(7382):463.
38. Ruas JL, White JP, Rao RR, Kleiner S, Brannan KT, Harrison BC, et al. A PGC-1α isoform induced by resistance training regulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Cell. 2012;151(6):1319-31.
39. Ferrara CM, Goldberg AP, Ortmeyer HK, Ryan AS. Effects of aerobic and resistive exercise training on glucose disposal and skeletal muscle metabolism in older men. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2006;61(5):480-7.
40. Holten MK, Zacho M, Gaster M, Juel C, Wojtaszewski JF, Dela F. Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2004;53(2):294-305.
41. Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature. 2006;444(7121):860-7.
42. Gray SR, Kamolrat T. The effect of exercise induced cytokines on insulin stimulated glucose transport in C2C12 cells. Cytokine. 2011;55(2):221-8.