Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 MSc, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 . Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


High intensity interval training and blood flow restriction make huge physiological changes in athletes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4 weeks of high intensity interval training and blood flow restriction on cardiovascular fitness and inflammatory cytokines of interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 in active male students. 18 active students in Tehran city (age range 20-30 years) were divided into three groups: 1- training and blood flow restriction, 2- training and 3-blood flow restriction by convenience sampling method. The subjects performed high intensity interval training and blood flow restriction for 4 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the test. Based on the results, high intensity interval training and blood flow restriction did not significantly change the Vo2max or vVo2max in the groups. According to the results, interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 levels at resting state were different among the groups. These indices showed significant differences in the training group compared with the other two groups (p < 0.05). IL-6 decreased and IL-7 increased in the training group. A decrease in the amount of resting interleukin-6 in the training group can show the relative decrease in the stress of this group. Also, a decrease in the levels of interleukin-17 in blood flow restriction groups may be attributed to the relative weakness of the immune system and the loss of function of T-helper 17 cells in these groups.


Main Subjects

1.Astorino TA, Allen RP, Roberson DW, Jurancich M. Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular function, VO2max, and muscular force. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012;26(1):138-45.
2.Laursen PB, Jenkins DG. The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training. Sports medicine. 2002;32(1):53-73.
3. Jacobs I, Esbjörnsson M, Sylven C, Holm I, Jansson E. Sprint training effects on muscle myoglobin, enzymes, fiber types, and blood lactate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1987;19(4):368.
4.MacDougall JD, Hicks AL, MacDonald JR, McKelvie RS, Green HJ, Smith KM. Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training. Journal of applied physiology. 1998;84(6):2138-42.
5.Nybo L, Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD, Mohr M, Hornstrup T, Simonsen L, et al. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2010;42(10):1951-8.
6.Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Major histocompatibility complex molecules and antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. Cellular and molecular immunology 7th ed Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. 2010:109-38.
7.Brandt C, Pedersen BK. The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic diseases. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2010;2010.
8.Gleeson M. Immune function in sport and exercise. Journal of applied physiology. 2007;103(2):693-9.
9.Mak TW, Saunders ME, Jett BD. Primer to the immune response: Newnes; 2013.
10.Alinejad HA, Shamsi M. Exercise induced release of cytokines from skeletal muscle: emphasis on IL-6. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2010;12(2):181-203.
11.Scott BR, Loenneke JP, Slattery KM, Dascombe BJ. Exercise with blood flow restriction: an updated evidence-based approach for enhanced muscular development. Sports medicine. 2015;45(3):313-25.
12.Dankel SJ, Buckner SL, Jessee MB, Mattocks KT, Mouser JG, Counts BR, et al. Post-exercise blood flow restriction attenuates muscle hypertrophy. European journal of applied physiology. 2016;116(10):1955-63.
13.Laurentino G, Ugrinowitsch C, Aihara A, Fernandes A, Parcell A, Ricard M, et al. Effects of strength training and vascular occlusion. International journal of sports medicine. 2008;29(08):664-7.
14.Laurentino GC, Ugrinowitsch C, Roschel H, Aoki MS, Soares AG, Neves Jr M, et al. Strength training with blood flow restriction diminishes myostatin gene expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(3):406-12.
15. Midgley AW, McNaughton LR, Jones AM. Training to enhance the physiological determinants of long-distance running performance. Sports Medicine. 2007;37(10):857-80.
16.Silva R, Damasceno M, Cruz R, Silva-Cavalcante MD, Lima-Silva AE, Bishop DJ, et al. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research. 2017;50(12).
17. Mensikova M, Stepanova H, Faldyna M. Interleukin-17 in veterinary animal species and its role in various diseases: a review. Cytokine. 2013;64(1):11-7.
18. Sampaio L, Bezerra E, Paladino K, dos Santos JOL, Quesada JIP, Rossato M. Effect of training level and blood flow restriction on thermal parameters: preliminary study. Infrared Physics & Technology. 2016;79:25-31.
19. Torma F, Gombos Z, Fridvalszki M, Langmar G, Tarcza Z, Merkely B, et al. Blood flow restriction in human skeletal muscle during rest periods after high-load resistance training down-regulates miR 206 and induces Pax7. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2019.
20. Zwetsloot KA, John CS, Lawrence MM, Battista RA, Shanely RA. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men. Journal of inflammation research. 2014;7:9.
21. Woods JA, Vieira VJ, Keylock KT. Exercise, inflammation, and innate immunity. Immunology and allergy clinics of North America. 2009;29(2):381-93.
22. Fossiez F, Djossou O, Chomarat P, Flores-Romo L, Ait-Yahia S, Maat C, et al. T cell interleukin-17 induces stromal cells to produce proinflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. The Journal of experimental medicine. 1996;183(6):2593-603.
23. Min W, Kim WH, Lillehoj EP, Lillehoj HS. Recent progress in host immunity to avian coccidiosis: IL-17 family cytokines as sentinels of the intestinal mucosa. Developmental & Comparative Immunology. 2013;41(3):418-28.
24. Rangachari M, Mauermann N, Marty RR, Dirnhofer S, Kurrer MO, Komnenovic V, et al. T-bet negatively regulates autoimmune myocarditis by suppressing local production of interleukin 1. The Journal of experimental medicine. 2006;203(8):2009-19.
25. Pan B, Shen J, Cao J, Zhou Y, Shang L, Jin S, et al. Interleukin-17 promotes angiogenesis by stimulating VEGF production of cancer cells via the STAT3/GIV signaling pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer. Scientific reports. 2015;5:16053.
26. Huang Q, Qian X, Fan J, Lv Z, Zhang X, Han J, et al. IL-17 promotes angiogenic factors IL-6, IL-8, and Vegf production via Stat1 in lung adenocarcinoma. Scientific reports. 2016;6:36551.
27. Larkin KA, MacNeil RG, Dirain M, Sandesara B, Manini TM, Buford TW. Blood flow restriction enhances post–resistance exercise angiogenic gene expression. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2012;44(11):2077.
28. De Paepe B, De Bleecker JL. Cytokines and chemokines as regulators of skeletal muscle inflammation: presenting the case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Mediators of inflammation. 2013;2013.
29. Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA. Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2012;8(8):457-65.
30. Alizadeh H, Daryanoosh F, Moatari M, Hoseinzadeh K. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs together with omega-3 supplement on interleukin-17 and CRP plasma levels in male mice. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2015;29:236.
31. Duzova H, Karakoc Y, Emre MH, Dogan ZY, Kilinc E. Effects of acute moderate and strenuous exercise bouts on IL-17 production and inflammatory response in trained rats. Journal of sports science & medicine. 2009;8(2):219.
32.Kordasti SY, Afzali B, Lim Z, Ingram W, Hayden J, Barber L, et al. IL‐17‐producing CD4+ T cells, pro‐inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis are increased in low risk myelodysplastic syndrome. British journal of haematology. 2009;145(1):64-72.
33.           Gabriel HH, Urhausen A, Valet G. Overtraining and immune system: a prospective longitudinal study in endurance athletes. Occupational Health and Industrial Medicine. 1998;4(39):189