Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license
Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Bojnourd branch, Islamic azad university of Bojnourd, Iran
Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education,
Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Professor, Department of pathobiology, School of public health and institute of health research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
PhD Student in clinical immunology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Adipolin(CTRP12), is a novel anti-inflammatory adipokine improves Insulin sensitivity and decreases circulating glucose levels. This study investigated effect of strengthening training on adipolin levels and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in obese women.20 sedentary postmenopausal obese women(BMI>30Kg/m2,aged 50-65 years) randomly assigned in to experimental(n=12)and control(n=8)groups.Subjects in experimental group participated in 12 weeks of strengthening training(3 sets of 8-12 repetitions at 40-60% of one maximal repetition),15-45 minutes per session and three sessions per week. Levels of adipolin, insulin and fasting glucose and anthropometric indices measured before and 48 hours after last training session. Statistical analysis was done by paired and independent t-test and Pearson correlation and P0.05). Therefore, strengthening training is one of treatment procedure to improve insulin sensitivity in sedentary postmenopausal obese women. However, more studied is necessary to identify molecular mechanism mediated by adipolin.
- Akima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Kuno, S.Y.; Masuda, K.; Masuda, T.; Shimojo, H. and et al. 1999. “Early phase adaptations of muscle use and strength to isokinetic training”. Med Sci Sports Exerc ., Vol. 31, No. 4: pp:588-94.
- Albright, A.; Franz, M.; Hornsby, G.; Kriska, A.; Marrero, D.; Ullrich, I. and et al. “American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and type 2 diabetes”. Med Sci Sports Exerc ., Vol. 32, No. 7, pp:1345-60.
- Baecke, J.A.H.; Burema, J and Frijters, JER. 1982. “A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies”. Am J Clin Nutr., Vol. 36, No. 5, pp:936-42.
- Balducci, S.; Zanuso, S.; Nicolucci, A.; Fernando, F.; Cavallo, S.; Cardelli, P. and et al. 2010. “Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss”. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis., Vol. 20, No. 8, pp:608-17.
- Bouchard, D.R.; Soucy, L.; Sénéchal, M.; Dionne, I.J and Brochu, M. 2009. “Impact of resistance training with or without caloric restriction on physical capacity in obese older women”. Menopause., Vol. 16, No. 1, pp:66-72.
- Brooks, N.; Layne, J.E.; Gordon, P.L.; Roubenoff, R.; Nelson, M.E. and Castaneda-Sceppa, C. 2007. “Strength training improves muscle quality and insulin sensitivity in Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes”. Int J Med Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1: pp:19-27.
- Cawthorn, W.P and Sethi, J.K. 2008. “TNF-alpha and adipocyte biology”. FEBS Lett., Vol. 582, No. 1, pp:117-31.
- Chang, L.; Chiang, S.H. and Saltiel, A.R. 2004. “Insulin signaling and the regulation of glucose transport”. Mol Med., Vol. 10 No. 7-12, pp:65-71.
- Enomoto, T.; Ohashi, K.; Shibata, R.; Higuchi, A.; Maruyama, S and et al. 2011. “Adipolin/C1qdc2/CTRP12 protein functions as an adipokine that improves glucose metabolism”. J Biol Chem., Vol. 286, No. 40, pp:34552–34558.
- Eriksson, J.; Tuominen, J.; Valle, T.; Sundberg, S.; Sovijari, A.; Lindholm, H. and et al. 1998. “Aerobic endurance exercise or circuit-type resistance training for individuals with impaired glucose tolerance?”. Horm Metab Res., Vol. 30, No. 1, pp:37–41.
- Fenkci, S.; Sarsan, A.; Rota, S and Ardic, F. 2006. “Effects of Resistance or Aerobic Exercises on Metabolic Parameters in Obese Women Who Are Not on a Diet”. Adv Ther., Vol. 23, No. 3, pp:404-13.
- Flier, J.S. 2004. “Obesity wars: molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic”. Cell., Vol. 116, No. 2, pp:337-50.
- Food Questionnaire 1994: National Cancer Institute, Berkley, California.
- Hajduch, E.; Alessi, D.R.; Hemmings, B.A. and Hundal, H.S. 1998. “Constitutive activation of protein kinase B_ by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, protein synthesis, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in L6 muscle cell”. Diabetes., Vol. 47, No. 7, pp:1006-13.
- Henriksen, E.J. 2002. “Invited review: Effects of acute exercise and exercise training on insulin resistance”. J Appl Physiol (1985)., Vol. 93, No. 2, pp:788-96.
- Hunter, M. (2000). “The women’s health questionnaire (WHQ): The development, standardization and application of a measure of mid-aged women's emotional and physical health”. Qual life res., Vol. 9, No. Supp1, pp:733-738.
- Jackson, A.S., Pollock, M and Ward, A. (1980). "Generalized equations for predicting body density of women". Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 12,175-182.
- Kanaley, J.A.; Sames, C.; Swisher, L.; Swick, A.G.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.L.; Steppan, C.M. and et al. Abdominal Fat Distribution in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: The Impact of Physical Activity, Age, and Menopausal Status. Metabolism., Vol. 50, No. 8, pp:976-82.
- Kannel, W.B and Sorlie, P. 1979. “Some health benefits of physical activity: the Framingham Study”. Arch Intern Med., Vol. 139; No. 8, pp:857–861.
- Kelly, A.S.; Steinberger, J.; Olson, T.P and Dengel, DR. 2007. “In the absence of weight loss, exercise training does not improve adipokines or oxidative stress in overweightchildren”. Metabolism., Vol. 56, No. 7, pp:1005-9.
- Kohn, A.D.; Summers, S.A.; Birnbaum, M.J. and Roth, R.A. 1996. “Expression of a constitutively active Akt Ser/Thr kinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulated glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 translocation”. J Biol Chem., Vol. 271, No. 49, pp:31372–31378.
- Lau, D.C., Douketis, J.D., Morrison, K.M., Hramiak, I.M and Sharma, A.M. (2007). "2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children [summary] ". CMAJ., Vol. 176, No. 8: S1-13.
- Marques, E.; Carvalho, J.; Soares, J.M.; Marques, F and Mota, J. 2009. “Effects of resistance and multicomponent exercise on lipid profiles of older women”. Maturitas ., Vol. 63, No. 1: pp:84-8.
- Matthews, D.R. Hosker, J.P.; Rudenski, A.S.; Naylor, B.A.; Treacher, D.F and Turner, R.C. 1985. “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man”. Diabetologia., Vol. 28, No. 7, 412–9.
- Maud, P.J and Foster, C. (2006). Physiological assessmnet of human fitness. 2end Ed. Human Kinetics, Canada: pp:119-150.
- Nardo, L.G. and Rai, R. 2001. “Metformin therapy in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: endocrine, metabolic and reproductive effects”. Gynecol Endocrinol., Vol. 15, No. 5, pp:373–380.
- O’Leary, V.B.; Marchetti, C.M.; Krishnan, R.K.; Stetzer. B.P,; Gonzalez, F and Kirwan, J.P. 2006. “Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat”. J Appl Physiol., Vol. 100, No. 5, pp:1584-1589.
- O'Malley, T.; Ludlam, C.A.; Riemermsa, R.A and Fox, K.A. 2010. “Early increase in levels of soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1): potential risk factor for the acute coronary syndromes”. Eur Heart J., Vol. 22, No. 14, pp:1226-34.
- Phillips, M.D.; Patrizi, R.M.; Cheek, D.J.; Wooten, J.S.; Barbee, J.J and Mitchell, J.B. 2012. “Resistance training reduces subclinical inflammation in obese, postmenopausal women”. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 11: pp:2099-110.
- Rosen, E.D and Spiegelman, B.M. 2006. “Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis”. Nature., Vol. 444, No. 7121, pp:847-53.
- Ryan, A.S.; Treuth, M.S.; Hunter, G.R and Elahi, D. 1998. “Resistive training maintains bone mineral density in postmenopausal women”. Calcif Tissue Int., Vol. 62, No. 4, pp:295-9.
- Scherer, P.E. 2006. “Adipose tissue: from lipid storage compartment to endocrine organ”. Diabetes., Vol. 55, No. 6, pp:1537-45.
- Sigal, R.J.; Kenny, G.P.; Wasserman, D.H.; Castaneda-Sceppa, C and White, RD. 2006. “Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes :a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association”. Diabetes Care., Vol. 29, No. 6, pp:1433–1438.
- Siri, W.E. (1993). "Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. 1961". Nutrition., Vol. 9, 480-91; discussion 480, 492.
- Tan, B.K.; Lewandowski, K.C.; O'Hare, J.P. and Randeva, H.S. 2014. “Insulin regulates the novel adipokine adipolin/CTRP12: in vivo and ex vivo effects”. J Endocrinol., Vol. 221, No. 1, pp:111-9.
- Tan, B.K.; Chen, J.; Adya, R.; Ramanjaneya, M.; Patel, V. and Randeva, H.S. 2013. “Metformin increases the novel adipokine adipolin/CTRP12: role of the AMPK pathway”. J Enocrinol., Vol. 219, No. 2, pp:101-8.
- Ueki, K.; Yamamoto-Honda, R.; Kaburagi, Y.; Yamauchi, T.; Tobe, K.; Burgering, B.M.T. And et al. 1998. “Potential role of protein kinase B in insulin-induced glucose transport, glycogen synthe synthesis, and protein synthesis”. J Biol Chem., Vol. 273, No. 9, pp:5315-22.
- Vu, V.; Riddell, M.C and Sweeney, G. 2007. “Circulating adiponectin and adiponectin receptor expression in skeletal muscle: effects of exercise”. Diabetes Metab Res Rev., Vol. 23, No. 8, pp:600-11.
- Wei, Z.; Peterson, J.M.; Lei, X.; Cebotaru, L.; Wolfgang, M.J.; Baldeviano, G.C. And et al. 2012. “C1q/TNF-related protein-12 (CTRP12), a novel adipokine that improves insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in mouse models of obesity and diabetes”. J Biol Chem., Vol. 287, No. 13, pp:10301–10315.
- Wei, Z.; Lei, X.; Seldin, M.M. and Wong, G.W. 2012. “Endopeptidase cleavage generates a functionally distinct isoform of C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-12 (CTRP12) with an altered oligomeric state and signaling specificity”. J Biol Chem., Vol. 287, No. 43, pp:35804-14.
- Wong, G.W.; Wang, J.; Hug, C.; Tsao, T.S and Lodish, H.F. 2004. “A family of Acrp30/adiponectin structural and functional paralogs”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., Vol. 101, No. 28, pp:10302-7.
- Zacker, R.J. 2005. “Strength Training in Diabetes Management”. Diab Spec., Vol. 18, No. 2, pp:71-5.