The effect of omega-3 supplementation on acute phase proeins in athletic women after single bout of exhaustive exercise

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of exercise physiology, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, university of Tehran , Tehran, Iran

2 PhD student in exercise physiology, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of omega-3 supplementation on C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen in athletic women after single bout of exhaustive exercise. Fourteen athletic women (mean ± SD age 21.17±0.78 years, 21.24±2.32 mass, 45.74±4.97 VO2max) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2g docosahexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) capsule or placebo containing olive oil taken daily for 3 weeks. Blood sampling has been collected, pre and post exhaustive exercise, before and after supplementation periods.exercise performed on treadmill until exhaustion. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Statistical differences were considered significant at P


1. Shahla Hojjat, S.A., Mohammad Amin Goli, Effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on CRP inflammatory index and serum cell damage after a resistance training session in young male handlers. Sports Journal Quarterly, 2013. 5(11): p. 159-178.
2. Kaspar, F., et al., Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study. Mediators Inflamm, 2016. 2016: p. 5474837.
3. Ramamoorthy, R.D., et al., A review of C-reactive protein: A diagnostic indicator in periodontal medicine. J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2012. 4(Suppl 2): p. S422-6.
4. Bansal, T., et al., C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and its Association with Periodontal Disease: A Brief Review. J Clin Diagn Res, 2014. 8(7): p. ZE21-4.
5. Paula Alessandra Di Filippo, L.P.M., Marcos Aur elio Dias Meireles, Celia Raquel Quirino, Andressa Francisca da Silva Nogueira, Paulo Moreira Bogossian Influence of Marcha Exercise on the Serum Concentrations of Acute-Phase Proteins in Mangalarga Marchador Horses. Equine Veterinary Science, 2018. 63: p. 65-68.
6. van Bragt, J., et al., Blood biomarkers in chronic airways diseases and their role in diagnosis and management. Expert Rev Respir Med, 2018. 12(5): p. 361-374.
7. Ahmed, M.S., et al., Acute phase reactants as novel predictors of cardiovascular disease. ISRN Inflamm, 2012. 2012: p. 953461.
8. Jouris, K.B., J.L. McDaniel, and E.P. Weiss, The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise. J Sports Sci Med, 2011. 10(3): p. 432-8.
9. Andrade, P., et al., Effects of the fish-oil supplementation on the immune andinflammatory responses in elite swimmers. 2007(77): p. 139-145.
10. Calder, P.C., Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes. Nutrients, 2010. 2(3): p. 355-74.
11. Leo Galland, M., Diet and Inflammation. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 2010. 25(6): p. 634-640.
390 علوم زیستی ورزشی، دورة 11 ، شمارة 4، زمستان 1398
12. Gouveia, T.L., et al., High serum levels of proinflammatory markers during epileptogenesis. Can omega-3 fatty acid administration reduce this process? Epilepsy Behav, 2015. 51: p. 300-5.
13. He, K., et al., Associations of Dietary Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Fish with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Endothelial Activation (From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]). Am J Cardiol, 2009. 103(9): p. 1238-1243.
14. Derosa, G., et al., Effects of long chain omega-3 fatty acids on metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in combined dyslipidemia patients. Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2009. 10: p. 1239–1247.
15. Ortega, J.F., et al., Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and oleate enhances exercise training effects in patients with metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2016. 24(8): p. 1704-11.
16. Hu, C., et al., Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Markers of Inflammation in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Controversial Issue. Ther Apher Dial, 2018. 22(2): p. 124-132.
17. Lu, Y., et al., Effect of omega 3 fatty acids on C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. Medicine (Baltimore), 2018. 97(37): p. e11971.
18. Lee, K., A. Blann, and G. Lip, Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma indices of thrombogenesis and inflammation in patients post-myocardial infarction. Thromb Res, 2006. 118: p. 305-312.
19. Skulas-Ray, A.C., et al., Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation. Nutrients, 2015. 7(8): p. 6390-404.
20. Atashak, S., et al., Effect of omega-3 supplementation on the blood levels of oxidative stress, muscle damage and inflammation markers after acute resistance exercise in young athletes. Kinesiology, 2013. 45(1): p. 22-29.
21. Bloomer, R., et al., Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study. Lipids in Health and Disease, 2009. 8(36): p. 1-12.
22. Santos, E., et al., Omega-3 supplementation attenuates the production of c-reactive protein in military ersonnel during 5 days of intense physical stress and nutritional restriction. Biology of Sport, 2012. 29(2): p. 93-99.
23. Lalia, A.Z., et al., Influence of omega-3 fatty acids on skeletal muscle protein metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics in older adults. Aging (Albany NY), 2017. 9(4): p. 1096-1129.
24. DiLorenzo, F.M., C.J. Drager, and J.W. Rankin, Docosahexaenoic acid affects markers of inflammation and muscle damage after eccentric exercise. J Strength Cond Res, 2014. 28(10): p. 2768-74.
25. Fayh, A.P.T., et al., Effects of n-3 fatty acids and exercise on oxidative stress parameters in type 2 diabetic: a randomized clinical trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2018. 15: p. 18.
اثر مصرف مکمل امگا- 3 بر واکنشگرهای فاز حاد زنان ورزشکار پس از یک وهله فعالیت ورزشی ... 391
26. Karimi Mohammad, Z.M., Effect of Omega-3 on Plasma Levels of Homocysteine and Fibrinogen Following a Single Session of Circuit Resistance Training in non-athlete Obese Women. Endocrinology and Metabolism 2018. 19(6): p. 419-424.
27. Mickleborough, T., et al., Protective effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. 2006(129): p. 39–49.
28. Mickleborough, T.D., et al., Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2003. 168(10): p. 1181-9.
29. Saravanan, P., et al., Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Does Not Reduce Risk of Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 2010. 3: p. 46-53.
30. Makhoul, Z., et al., Associations of very high intakes of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids with biomarkers of chronic disease risk among Yup''ik Eskimos. Am J Clin Nutr, 2010. 91: p. 777-785.
31. Ghiasvand, R., et al., Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Vitamin E on the Blood Levels of Inflammatory Markers, Antioxidant Enzymes, and Lipid Peroxidation in Iranian Basketball Players. Iranian J Publ Health, 2010. 39(1): p. 15-21.
32. Logan, S.L. and L.L. Spriet, Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females. PLoS One, 2015. 10(12): p. e0144828.
33. Katherine E. Corder, K.R.N., Jennifer L. McDaniel, Uthayashanker R. Ezekiel, Edward P. Weiss, Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women. Sports Science and Medicine 2016(15): p. 176-183.
34. Pluess, T., D. Hayoz, and M. Berger, Intravenous fish oil blunts the physiological response to endotoxin in healthy subjects. Intensive Care Med, 2007. 33: p. 789-797.
35. Adkins, Y. and D. Kelley, Mechanisms underlying the cardio protective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2010. 21: p. 781-792.
36. Hagopian, K., et al., Complex I-associated hydrogen peroxide production is decreased and electron transport chain enzyme activities are altered in n-3 enriched fat-1 mice. PLoS One, 2010. 5(9): p. e12696.
37. Ruiz-Ojeda, F.J., et al., Impact of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole (3-AT)-Derived Increase in Hydrogen Peroxide Levels on Inflammation and Metabolism in Human Differentiated Adipocytes. PLoS One, 2016. 11(3): p. e0152550.