Comparison of the effect of resistance training with and without blood flow restriction on serum levels of IGF-1, testosterone and mayonetin in young men

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate in exercise physiology, Dept of Physical Education, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Vali E-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran

2 phD in exercise physiology, Dept of Exercise physiology, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, lorestan University, Khoramababd, Iran

3 M.Sc in exercise physiology, Dept of Physical Education, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Islamic Azad University Kerman Branch, kerman , Iran


Different training programs have different effects on the level of hormonal response. Resistance training with blood flow restriction is one of the exercise method that leads to increase in muscle strength and performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect of resistance training with and without blood flow restriction on the serum levels of IGF-1, testosterone and myonectin in young men. The research groups consisted of two groups: resistance training with blood flow restriction (10 subjects) and resistance training without blood flow restriction (10 subjects). The resistance training program was conducted for four weeks. In pre/post-test, serum concentration of IGF-1, testosterone and Myonectine was measured by ELISA method. To determine the difference between the variables, one-way covariance analysis was used at the significance level of 0/05. Our results showed that IGF-1 and testosterone levels in the exercise group with blood flow restriction were significantly higher than the exercise group without blood flow restriction (P = 0.001). However, there was a non-significant increase in myonectin levels (P = 0.08). These findings suggest that resistance training with blood flow restriction is very effective in increasing hypertrophy-related factors.


Main Subjects

1.   Mansoor, E., The relationship between serum testosterone and HDL - C in male athletes and weightlifters. Olympic, 1998. 5(1-2): p. 63-66 [Persian].
2.   Faigenbaum, A.D., et al., Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2009. 23: p. S60-S79.
3.   Raastad, T., T. Bjøro, and J. Hallen, Hormonal responses to high-and moderate-intensity strength exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 2000. 82(1-2): p. 121-128.
4.   Abe, T., et al., Skeletal muscle size and circulating IGF-1 are increased after two weeks of twice daily “KAATSU” resistance training. International Journal of KAATSU Training Research, 2005. 1(1): p. 6-12.
5.   Loenneke, J.P. and T.J. Pujol, The use of occlusion training to produce muscle hypertrophy. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 2009. 31(3): p. 77-84.
6.   Madarame, H., et al., Cross-transfer effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction. Medicine+ Science in Sports+ Exercise, 2008. 40(2): p. 258.
7.   Moore, D.R., et al., Neuromuscular adaptations in human muscle following low intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion. European journal of applied physiology, 2004. 92(4-5): p. 399-406.
8.   Kawada, S. and N. Ishii, Skeletal muscle hypertrophy after chronic restriction of venous blood flow in rats. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2005. 37(7): p. 1144-1150.
9.   Reeves, G.V., et al., Comparison of hormone responses following light resistance exercise with partial vascular occlusion and moderately difficult resistance exercise without occlusion. Journal of applied physiology, 2006. 101(6): p. 1616-1622.
10. Loenneke, J.P., et al., Blood flow restriction pressure recommendations: a tale of two cuffs. Frontiers in physiology, 2013. 4: p. 249.
11. Scott, B.R., et al., Exercise with blood flow restriction: an updated evidence-based approach for enhanced muscular development. Sports medicine, 2015. 45(3): p. 313-325.
12. Centner, C., et al., Effects of blood flow restriction training on muscular strength and hypertrophy in older individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 2019. 49(1): p. 95-108.
13. Seo, D.-i., W.-Y. So, and D.J. Sung, Effect of a low-intensity resistance exercise programme with blood flow restriction on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in middle-aged women. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 2016. 38(2): p. 167-177.
14. Hargreaves, M., Exercise, muscle, and CHO metabolism. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 2015. 25: p. 29-33.
15. Ribeiro, A.S., et al., Effects of traditional and pyramidal resistance training systems on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women: a randomized crossover trial. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2017. 31(7): p. 1888-1896.
16. Häkkinen, K., et al., Selective muscle hypertrophy, changes in EMG and force, and serum hormones during strength training in older women. Journal of applied physiology, 2001. 91(2): p. 569-580.
17. Ikemoto‐Uezumi, M., et al., Pro‐Insulin‐Like Growth Factor‐II Ameliorates Age‐Related Inefficient Regenerative Response by Orchestrating Self‐Reinforcement Mechanism of Muscle Regeneration. Stem Cells, 2015. 33(8): p. 2456-2468.
18. Kelly, D. and T. Jones, Testosterone and obesity. Obesity Reviews, 2015. 16(7): p. 581-606.
19. Kadi, F., Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the action of testosterone on human skeletal muscle. A basis for illegal performance enhancement. British journal of pharmacology, 2008. 154(3): p. 522-528.
20. Schoenfeld, B.J., Potential mechanisms for a role of metabolic stress in hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training. Sports medicine, 2013. 43(3): p. 179-194.
21. Giudice, J. and J.M. Taylor, Muscle as a paracrine and endocrine organ. Current opinion in pharmacology, 2017. 34: p. 49-55.
22. Seldin, M.M., et al., Myonectin (CTRP15), a novel myokine that links skeletal muscle to systemic lipid homeostasis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2012. 287(15): p. 11968-11980.
23. Jennische, E. and H.A. Hansson, Regenerating skeletal muscle cells express insulin‐like growth factor I. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 1987. 130(2): p. 327-332.
24. Drummond, M.J., et al., Human muscle gene expression following resistance exercise and blood flow restriction. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2008. 40(4): p. 691.
25. Hansen, S., et al., The effect of short‐term strength training on human skeletal muscle: the importance of physiologically elevated hormone levels. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 2001. 11(6): p. 347-354.
26. Borer, K.T., Exercise endocrinology. 2003: Human Kinetics.
27. Muniyappa, R., et al., Insulin like growth factor 1 increases vascular smooth muscle nitric oxide production. Life sciences, 1997. 61(9): p. 925-931.
28. Gosselink, K., et al., Skeletal muscle afferent regulation of bioassayable growth hormone in the rat pituitary. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1998. 84(4): p. 1425-1430.
29. Eliakim, A., et al., Reduced exercise-associated response of the GH-IGF-I axis and catecholamines in obese children and adolescents. Journal of Applied Physiology, 2006. 100(5): p. 1630-1637.
30. Dillon, E.L., et al., Amino acid supplementation increases lean body mass, basal muscle protein synthesis, and insulin-like growth factor-I expression in older women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2009. 94(5): p. 1630-1637.
31. Li, X., et al., Dietary supplementation with zinc oxide increases IGF-I and IGF-I receptor gene expression in the small intestine of weanling piglets. The journal of nutrition, 2006. 136(7): p. 1786-1791.
32. Lowery, R.P., et al., Practical blood flow restriction training increases muscle hypertrophy during a periodized resistance training programme. Clinical physiology and functional imaging, 2014. 34(4): p. 317-321.
33. Loenneke, J., et al., Potential safety issues with blood flow restriction training. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 2011. 21(4): p. 510-518.
34. Wilson, J.M., et al., Practical blood flow restriction training increases acute determinants of hypertrophy without increasing indices of muscle damage. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2013. 27(11): p. 3068-3075.
35. Manimmanakorn, A., et al., Effects of low-load resistance training combined with blood flow restriction or hypoxia on muscle function and performance in netball athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2013. 16(4): p. 337-342.
36. Elander, A., et al., Metabolic adaptation to reduced muscle blood flow. I. Enzyme and metabolite alterations. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 1985. 249(1): p. E63-E69.
37. Loenneke, J., G. Wilson, and J. Wilson, A mechanistic approach to blood flow occlusion. International journal of sports medicine, 2010. 31(01): p. 1-4.
38. Jensen, A.E., et al., Exercise training with blood flow restriction has little effect on muscular strength and does not change IGF-1 in fit military warfighters. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 2016. 27: p. 33-40.
39. Patterson, S.D., et al., Circulating hormone and cytokine response to low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction in older men. European journal of applied physiology, 2013. 113(3): p. 713-719.
40. Vingren, J.L., et al., Testosterone physiology in resistance exercise and training. Sports medicine, 2010. 40(12): p. 1037-1053.
41. Walker, S., et al., Effects of prolonged hypertrophic resistance training on acute endocrine responses in young and older men. Journal of aging and physical activity, 2015. 23(2): p. 230-236.
42. Cadore, E.L., et al., Hormonal responses to resistance exercise in long-term trained and untrained middle-aged men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2008. 22(5): p. 1617-1624.
43. Roberts, M.D., et al., The expression of androgen-regulated genes before and after a resistance exercise bout in younger and older men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2009. 23(4): p. 1060-1067.
44. Lu, S.-S., et al., Lactate and the effects of exercise on testosterone secretion: evidence for the involvement of a cAMP-mediated mechanism. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 1997. 29(8): p. 1048-1054.
45. Tremblay, M.S., J.L. Copeland, and W. Van Helder, Influence of exercise duration on post-exercise steroid hormone responses in trained males. European journal of applied physiology, 2005. 94(5-6): p. 505-513.
46. Smilios, I., et al., Hormonal responses after various resistance exercise protocols. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2003. 35(4): p. 644-654.
47. Popovic, B., et al., Acute Response to Endurance Exercise Stress: Focus on Catabolic/Anabolic Interplay Between Cortisol, Testosterone, and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in Professional Athletes. Journal of medical biochemistry, 2019. 38(1): p. 6-12.
48. Seldin, M.M. and G.W. Wong, Regulation of tissue crosstalk by skeletal muscle-derived myonectin and other myokines. Adipocyte, 2012. 1(4): p. 200-202.
49. Peterson, J.M., R. Mart, and C.E. Bond, Effect of obesity and exercise on the expression of the novel myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5. PeerJ, 2014. 2: p. e605.
50. Lim, S., et al., Effects of aerobic exercise training on C1q tumor necrosis factor α-related protein isoform 5 (myonectin): association with insulin resistance and mitochondrial DNA density in women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2012. 97(1): p. E88-E93.
51. Gamas, L., P. Matafome, and R. Seiça, Irisin and myonectin regulation in the insulin resistant muscle: implications to adipose tissue: muscle crosstalk. Journal of diabetes research, 2015. 2015.
52. Seldin, M.M., et al., Skeletal muscle-derived myonectin activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to suppress autophagy in liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2013. 288(50): p. 36073-36082.
53. Adigozalpour, M. and A. Safarzade, Effect of Resistance Training with Two Different Volumes on Serum Myonectin Levels in Rats Fed with Sucrose Solution. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 2017. 5(2): p. 11-19.
54.           Díaz, B.B., et al., Myokines, physical activity, insulin resistance and autoimmune diseases. Immunology letters, 2018.