Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 Associat Professor, Department of Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

2 MSc, Department of Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran


Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and are considered an important objective for therapeutic intervention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks Pilates training and massage therapy on plasma serum levels of IL_17 and IFNβ as pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with MS. In this clinical trial study, 36 women patients (who had medical file in MS society of Tabriz, Iran) with range age from 30 to 40 years old, a degree of the disease from 0 to 4/5 and average length of disease was 7±2 yr, were selected and split in to 4 groups: massage (n=9), pilates (n=9), pilates + massage (n=9), and a control (n=9). Pilates training and massage therapy included 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 40-60 minutes each session (20 to 40 minutes for Pilates and 20 to 30 minutes for massage). Blood samples were taken before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using spss20. The results showed that after eight weeks of Pilates training and massage therapy, IL-17 levels decreased significantly in Pilates, Massage and Pilates + Massage groups, and the level of IFN-β in massage and Pilates + Massage groups increased significantly (P< 0/05). Conclusion: Since Pilates coupled with Massage reduced pro-inflammatory IL-17 cytokine and increase IFN-β in MS patients, it seems that Pilates training and massage therapy can be used as a complementary treatment along with other drug therapies for preventing the progress of MS.


Main Subjects

1.   Bansi J, Bloch W, Gamper U, Kesselring J. Training in MS: influence of two different endurance training protocols (aquatic versus overland) on cytokine and neurotrophin concentrations during three week randomized controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis Journal. 2013;19(5):613-21.
2.   Briken S, Rosenkranz SC, Keminer O, Patra S, Ketels G, Heesen C, et al. Effects of exercise on Irisin, BDNF and IL-6 serum levels in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis. Journal of neuroimmunology. 2016;299:53-8.
3.   Fragoso YD, Santana DLB, Pinto RC. The positive effects of a physical activity program for multiple sclerosis patients with fatigue. NeuroRehabilitation. 2008;23(2):153-7.
4.   Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S, editors. Immunologia cellulare e molecolare 9 ed2018: Edra.
5.   Bushnell S, Zhao Z, Stebbins C, Cadavid D, Buko A, Whalley E, et al. Serum IL-17F does not predict poor response to IM IFNβ-1a in relapsing-remitting MS. Neurology. 2012;79(6):531-7.
6.   RADMEHR L, KALANTARI KB, KAZEMI A. The Effect of 8 weeks of endurance training on serum levels of IL-10 and IL-17 in elderly women with breast cancer. 2016.
7.   Duzova H, Karakoc Y, Emre MH, Dogan ZY, Kilinc E. Effects of acute moderate and strenuous exercise bouts on IL-17 production and inflammatory response in trained rats. Journal of sports science & medicine. 2009;8(2):219.
8.   Florindo M. Inflammatory cytokines and physical activity in multiple sclerosis. ISRN neurology. 2014;2014.
9.   Scheidel J, Schaefer H, Ackermann J, Hebel M, Schaefer T, Doering C, et al. Bioinformatics analysis quantifies neighborhood preferences of cancer cells in Hodgkin lymphoma. bioRxiv. 2017:228981.
10. Malani PN. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. JAMA. 2012;308(17):1813-4.
11. Longworth JC. Psychophysiological effects of slow stroke back massage in normotensive females. Advances in Nursing Science. 1982;4(4):44-61.
12. SHANAZARI Z, MARANDI SM, Shayegannejad V. The effect of pilates exercises and aquatic trainning on walking speed in women with multiple sclerosis. 2013.
13. Abedanzadeh R. The Effect of 12 Weeks of Training Pilates on Balance and Fatigue in Women with Multiple Sclerosis. Navid No. 2018;20(64):1-12.
14. Hernandez-Reif M, Field T, Field T, Theakston H. Multiple sclerosis patients benefit from massage therapy. Journal of Bodywork and Movement therapies. 1998;2(3):168-74.
15. Kim ES, Im J-A, Kim KC, Park JH, Suh S-H, Kang ES, et al. Improved insulin sensitivity and adiponectin level after exercise training in obese Korean youth. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15(12):3023–30.
16. Rousseaux M, Pérennou D. Comfort care in severely disabled multiple sclerosis patients. Journal of the neurological sciences. 2004;222(1-2):39-48.
17. Petersen AMW, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Journal of applied physiology. 2005;98(4):1154-62.
18. White LJ, Castellano V, Mc Coy SC. Cytokine responses to resistance training in people with multiple sclerosis. Journal of sports sciences. 2006;24(8):911-4.
19. Golzari Z, Shabkhiz F, Soudi S, Kordi MR, Hashemi SM. Combined exercise training reduces IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in the plasma and the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in women with multiple sclerosis. International immunopharmacology. 2010;10(11):1415-9.
20. Alizadeh H, Daryanoosh F, Moatari M, Hoseinzadeh K. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs together with omega-3 supplement on interleukin-17 and CRP plasma levels in male mice. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2015;29:236.
21. Nikseresht M, Agha-Alinejad H, Azarbayjani MA, Ebrahim K. Effects of nonlinear resistance and aerobic interval training on cytokines and insulin resistance in sedentary men who are obese. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2014;28(9):2560-8.
22. Shih K-C, Janckila AJ, Kwok C-F, Ho L-T, Chou Y-C, Chao T-Y. Effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory cytokines, and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5a in obese Chinese male adolescents. Metabolism. 2010;59(1):144-51.
23. Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, Gleeson M, Woods JA, Bishop N, et al. Position statement part one: immune function and exercise. 2011.
24. Barry A, Cronin O, Ryan AM, Sweeney B, Yap SM, O'Toole O, et al. Impact of exercise on innate immunity in multiple sclerosis progression and symptomatology. Frontiers in physiology. 2016;7:194.
25. Pozzilli C, Prosperini L. Clinical markers of therapeutic response to disease modifying drugs. Neurological Sciences. 2008;29(2):211-3.
26. Baccala R, Kono DH, Theofilopoulos AN. Interferons as pathogenic effectors in autoimmunity. Immunological reviews. 2005;204(1):9-26.