Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license

Authors

1 Instructor, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Mohaghegh Ardabali University, Ardabal, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 MSc Student, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 PhD Student, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Mohaghegh Ardabali University, Ardabal, Iran

5 MSc Student, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise on resistin, glycated hemoglobin, indicator of insulin resistance and some cardiovascular risk factors in obese women with type 2 diabetes. 22 obese sedentary women with type 2 diabetes in Kermanshah (mean age 44.95±2.33 yrs, weight 78.88±0.82 kg, height 161.11±5.45 cm) were randomly divided into 2 groups (each group 11 subjects): experimental and control. The experimental group performed aerobic exercises for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week, each session 60 minutes) with 60-80% of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were collected 2 days before and after the intervention. Independent t test was used to compare the intergroup differences and dependent t test was used to compare the intragroup results. After the intervention, weight, body fat percent, insulin, HbA1c, hc-CRP, LDL-C (P=0.05), fasting blood glucose (P=0.032), insulin resistance, resistin (P=0.04), cholesterol (P=0.028) and TG (P=0.014) significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group. HDL-C and BMI levels had no significant differences between the groups. Weight (P=0.02), fat percent (P=0.01), glucose (P=0.004), insulin (P=0.031), resistin (P=0.024), TG (P=0.039), BMI, HbA1c, hc-CRP, LDL-C (P=0.05), insulin resistance and cholesterol (P=0.045) significantly decreased in the experimental group in the posttest compared with the baseline. The improved insulin resistance and decreased inflammatory markers and glycated hemoglobin reduce the potential risk of cardiac diseases and complications and diabetes and regular aerobic exercise can influence controlling the complications of this disease.

Keywords

  1. Gorgani Firouzjaya S. “Relationship between type 2 diabetes and obesity”. Journal of the Paramedical School of the Army. 2009; (2): 40-44. (In Persian)
  2. Yousefi Pour Peyman, Tadibi V, Beh Pour N, Parno A, Delbari M A, Rashidi S. The effect of aerobic exercise on blood glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 57(4): 976-984. (In Persian)
  3. Zeaei A, Hashemi Pour S, Ghavam S, Javadi A, Gavam R, Barikani A. “Comparison of the effect of metformin and pioglitazone on the level of hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes”. Journal of ILAM University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 21(2): 28-36. (In Persian)
  4. Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, Fernando F, Cavallo S, Cardelli P, et al. "Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is dependent on exercise modalities and independent of weight loss". NMCD. 2010; 20: 608-617.
  5. Kusminski SM, McTernan PG, Kumar S. "Role of resistin in obesity, insulin resistance and Type II diabetes". Clin Sci. 2005; 109: 243-256.
  6. Cirillo PL, Maresca FA, Palma VD, Ziviello FR, Bevilacqua MI. "adipose tissue in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease: who is guilty". Journal of Hypertension. 2012; 23(4): 13-21.
  7. Jones TE, Basilio JL, Brophy PM, McCammon MR, Hickner RC. "Long-term exercise training in overweight adolescents improves plasma peptide YY and resistin". International Journal of Obesity. 2009; 17(2): 1189-1195.
  8. Kadoglou P, Perrea D, Iliadis F, Angelopoulou N, Liapis C, Alevizos M. "Exercise reduces resistin and inflammatory cytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Care. 2007; 30(3): 719-721.
  9. Al-Daghri N, Chetty R, McTernan P, Al-Rubean K, Al-Attas O, Jones A, et al. "Serum resistin is associated with C-reactive protein and LDL- cholesterol in type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease in a Saudi population". Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2005; 4(1): 10-21.
  10. Hasegawa G, Ohta M, Ichida Y, Obayashi H, Shigeta M, Yamasaki M, et al. "Increased serum resistin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes are not linked with markers of insulin resistance and adiposity". Acta Diabetologica Journal. 2005; 42(4): 104-109.
  11. Reilly M, Lehrke M, Wolfe M, Rohatgi A, Lazar M, Rader D. "Resistin is an inflammatory marker of atherosclerosis in humans". Circulation. 2005; 111(7): 932-938.
  12. Chudyk A, Petrella RJ. "Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes". Diabetes Care. 2011; 34(3): 1228–1237.
  13. Steppan, CM, Lazar, MA. "Resistin and obesity-associated insulin resistance". Trends Endocrinol. Cell Metabolism. 2002; 13(2): 18–23.
  14. Maiorana A, Driscoll G, Goodman C, Taylor R, Green D. "Combined aerobic and resistance exercise improves glycemic control and fitness in type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Journal. 2002; 56(1): 115-123.
  15. Selvin E, Paynter NP, Erlinger TP. "The effect of weight loss on C-reactive protein: a systematic review". Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007; 167(3): 31-39.
  16. Athyros V, Tziomalos K, Karagiannis A, Anagnostis P, Mikhailidis D. "Should adipokines be considered in the choice of the treatment of obesity-related health problems? Current Drug Targets. 2010; 11(1): 122-35.
  17. Steppan CM, Balley ST, Bhat S, Brown EJ, Banerjee RR, Wright CM. "The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes". Nature. 2001; 409(4): 307-312.
  18. Silha JV, Krsek M, Skrha JV, Sucharda P, Nyomba BL, Murphy LJ. "Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels in lean and obese subjects: correlations with insulin resistance". Eur J Endocrinol. 2003; 149(3): 331-335.
  19. Büyükyazı G, Ulman C, Taneli F, Esen H, Gözlükaya F, Özcan I, et al. "The effect of different intensity walking programs on resistin and visfatin levels in pre-menopausal women". Amjmed. 2011; 50(3): 87-94.
  20. Hivert M, Sullivan L, Fox C, Nathan D, D'Agostino R, Wilson P, et al. "Associations of adiponectin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} with insulin resistance". J Clin Endocrino & Metabol. 2008; 93(8): 31-65.
  21. Jorgea ML, Oliveira VN, Resende NM, Paraiso LF, Calixto A, Diniz AL, et al. "The effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise on metabolic control, inflammatory markers, adipocytokines, and muscle insulin signaling in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus". metabolism clinical and experimenta. 2011; 60(1): 1244-1252.
  22. Jamurtas AZ, Theocharis V, Koukoulis G, Stakias N, Fatouros IG, Kouretas D, et al. "The effects of acute exercise on serum adiponectin and resistin levels and their relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight males". Journal of Applied Physiology. 2006; 97(2): 122-126.
  23. Zhang XG, Zhang YQ, Zhao DK, Wu JX, Zhao JJiao XM, et al. "Relationship between blood glucose fluctuation and macro vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease". European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2014; 18(3): 3593-3600.
  24. Giannopoulou I, Fernhall B, Carhart R, Veinstock RS, Baynard T, Figueroa A, et al. "Effects of diet and/or exercise on the adipocytokine and inflammatory cytokine levels of postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes". Metabolism. 2005; 54(1): 866–875.
  25. Kelly AS, Steinberger J, Olson TP, Dengel DR. "In the absence of weight loss, exercise training does not improve adipokines or oxidative stress in overweight children". Metabolism. 2007; 56(2): 1005-1009.
  26. American Diabetes Association. "Standards of medical care in diabetes". diabetes care. 2011; 34(1): 11-61.
  27. Praet S, Loon L. "Optimizing the therapeutic benefits exercise in type 2 diabetes". J Appl Physiol. 2007; 103(4): 1113-1120.
  28. Nezamdoost Z, Sagebjoo M, Barzegar A. “The effect of twelve weeks of aerobic training on serum vaspin levels, fasting glucose and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes”. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism of Iran. 2014; 14(4): 99-104. (In Persian)
  29. Ghahramanlo E, Aghaalinezhad H, Gharekhanlo R. "Comparison of three kinds of strength training, endurance and parallel features bioenergy, maximal strength and body composition untrained men". Olympic. 2007; 40(9); pp: 45-56. (In Persian)
  30. Swain D, Hrltz B. "the fuel calculations (application of equations)". Iran: Tehran. Publishers. 2001; 1(3): 4-112.
  31. Davoodi B, Zillaei Boori Sh, Ahanghr Pour A, Zillaei Boori M. “The effect of two different intensities of physical activity on plasma levels of adiponectin and resin in obese and overweight young girls”. Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 85(4):27-37. (In Persian)
  32. Lau CH, Muniandy S. "Novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) and insulin resistance (IRAR) indexes are useful integrated diagnostic biomarkers for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a case control study". Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2011; 10(3): 8-15.
  33. Haghighi A, Yarahmadi H, ilidar abadi A. “Effect of green tea with aerobic exercise on adiponectin and ghrelin serums”. Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 58(8): 904-912. (In Persian)
  34. Tang NP, Wang LS, Yang L. "A polymorphism in the resistin gene promoter and the risk of coronary artery disease in a Chinese population". Clinical Endocrinology. 2008; 68(1): 82-87.
  35. Wen Y, Lu P, Dai L. "Association between resistin gene -420 C/G polymorphism and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis". Acta Diabetologica. 2013; 50(2): 267-272.
  36. Osawa H, Yamada K, Onuma H. "The G/G genotype of a resistin single-nucleotide polymorphism at -420 increases type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility by inducing promoter activity through specific binding of Sp1/3". American Journal of Human Genetics. 2004; 75(4): 678–686.
  37. Perseghin G, Burska A, Lattuada G, Alberti G, Costantino F, Ragogna F, et al. "Increased serum resistin in elite endurance athletes with high insulin sensitivity". Diabetologia. 2006; 49(1): 1893-1900.
  38. Rashidlamir AM, Mohsen J. "Effectiveness of an Eight Weeks Aerobic Exercise in Improvement of Body Composition and Modulation of hsCRP, Fibrinogen and Resistin in Middle Aged Men". GJSET. 2013; 5(1): 148-157.
  39. Menzaghi CCoco ASalvemini LThompson R, Doria ATrischitta V. "Heritability of serum resistin and its genetic correlation with insulin resistance-related features in nondiabetic Caucasians". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2006; 91(3): 2792-2795.
  40. Banaei P,Tadibi V, Rahimi M. “Comparison of the effect of two types of combination (aerobic-resistive) exercise protocols on fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, high reactivity C-reactive protein and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes”. Exercise Physiology. 2015; 25(7):99-107. (In Persian)
  41. Gaeini A, Dabidi Roushan V, Ravasi A, Joulazadeh T. "The effect of the period of the intermittent aerobic training on hs-crp in the old rats". Research Sport Science. 2008; 6(1): 39-54.
  42. Hirabara SMSilveira LRAbdulkader FCarvalho CRProcopio JCuri R. "Time-Dependent Effects of Fatty Acids on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism". J Cell Physiol. 2007; 210(2): 7–15.
  43. Fujimoto WY. "The importance of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes". American Journal of Medicine. 2000; 108(4): 9-14.
  44. Chavez JA, Holland WL, Bar J, Sandhoff K, Summers SA. "Acid ceramidase overexpression prevents the inhibitory effects of saturated fatty acids on insulin signaling". JBC. 2005; 280(1): 48 –53.
  45. Aellen R, Hollmann W, Boutellier U. "Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training on plasma lipoproteins". Int J Sports Med. 1993; 14(7): 396-400.
  46. Silswal N, Singh AK, Aruna B, Mukhopadhyay S, Ghosh S, Ehtesham NZ. "Human resistin stimulates the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-12 in macrophages by NF-kB-dependent pathway". BBRC. 2005; 334(2): 1092-1101.
  47. Iezadi M, Godarzi M, Soheili Sh, DouAli H. “Effect of Short-Term Sport Activity on Adiponectin Level and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Short Report”. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 12: 863-870. (In Persian)
  48. Askari A, Babi Askari S, Fallah Z, Kazemi Sh. “Effect of eight weeks aerobic training on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in women”. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2012; 14(1): 26-32. (In Persian)