Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license
. Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran
. Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, Tehran Central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Resistance exercises increase oxidative stress and muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D on MDA and CK changes during 8 weeks of progressive resistance training. 40 male subjects (age range 20-25 years) participated in the study voluntarily and were randomly assigned to 4 groups: vitamin D-resistance training (RTD; n=10), placebo-resistance training (RTP; n=10), vitamin D (VD; n=10) and control (con; n=10). Progressive resistance training was performed 3 sessions a week, every other day for 8 weeks with eight movements and increased intensity. Subjects in RTD and VD groups consumed a 50000-IU capsule of vitamin D every two weeks. Blood samples were gathered before and after the training period. Plasma was used to assess CK activity and MDA concentration. Results showed no significant difference among the groups in CK (P˃0.05). However, it was observed that MDA changes in group x time interaction was significant (P=0.001), that is to say MDA concentration significantly decreased in RTD group compared with VD (P=0.017) and control (P=0.034) groups. Also, MDA concentration was significantly lower in RTP than VD in the posttest (P=0.045). However, there was no significant difference between RTD and RTP. Finally, it can be said that the combination of resistance training and vitamin D can decrease lipid peroxidation. However, it seems that resistance training role is very important in this regard.
- Goldfarb AH,Garten RS,Chee PD,Cho C,Reeves GV, Hollander DB, Kraemer RR. (2008). "Resistance exercise effects on blood glutathione status and plasma protein carbonyls: Influence of partial vascular occlusion". European Journal of Applied Physiology, 104(5), 813–819.
- Hudson MB, Hosick PA, McCaulley GO, Schrieber L,Wrieden J, McAnulty SR., . . . Quindry, JC. (2008)."The effect of resistance exercise on humoral markersof oxidative stress. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise", 40(3), 542–548.
- Clarkson PM,& Thompson HS. (2000). "Antioxidants: What role do they play in physical activity and health?"American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 637–646.
- Kosmidou I, Vassilakopoulous T, Xagorari A, Zakynthinos S, Papapetropoulos A, & Roussos C. (2002). "Production of interleukin-6 by skeletal myotubes. Role of reactive oxygen species". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 26(5):587-593.
- Meydani M, & Evans WJ. (1993). "Free radicals, exercise, and aging". In B.P. Yu (Ed.), Free radicals in aging (pp.183–204). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
- Di Meo S, Reed TT, Venditti P, Victor VM. Role of ROS and RNS Sources in Physiological and Pathological Conditions. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:1245049.
- Bloomer RJ, Fry AC, Falvo MJ, & Moore CA. (2007)." Protein carbonyls are acutely elevated following single set anaerobic exercise in resistance trained men". Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 10, 411–417.
- Azizbeigi k, Atashak S, and Stannard S. "Effect of different rest interval lengths of resistance exercise on lipid peroxidation and creatine kinse responses". Kinesiology,47(2015)2:3-10.
- Parise G, Brose AN, & Tarnopolsky MA. (2005). "Resistance exercise training decreases oxidative damage to DNA and increases cytochrome oxidase activity in older adults". Experimental Gerontology. 40(3), 173–180.
- Azizbeigi K, Azarbayjani MA, Atashak S, Stannard SR. Effect of moderate and high resistance training intensity on indices of inflammatory and oxidative stress. Research in Sports Medicine. 2015;23(1):73-87.
- Azizbeigi K, Azarbayjani MA, Peeri M, Agha-alinejad H, Stannard S. The effect of progressive resistance training on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes in untrained men. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2013;23 (3):230-8.
- Taghiyar M, Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Feizi A, Hariri M, Mashhadi NS, Darvishi L. (2013). "the Effect of Vitamin C and E Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes": A Clinical Trial. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. S16–S23.
- Jówko E, Długołęcka B, Makaruk B, Cieśliński I. (2015). "The effect of green tea extract supplementation on exercise induced oxidative stress parameters in male sprinters". European Journal of Nutrition. 54(5):783-91.
- Ke CY, Yang FL, Wu WT, Chung CH, Lee RP, Yang WT, Subeq YM, Liao KW. " Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise". International Journal of Medical Sciences. 2016; 13(2): 147–153.
- Zobairi M, Matinhomaeei H, Hatamian H, Azizbeigi K, Azarbayejani M. Effect of Elastic Resistance Training and Vitamin D on Systemic Inflammation Indices in Untrained Men: A Clinical Trial. Caspian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 2017, 196-205.
- Foroozanfard F, Jamilian M, Bahmani F, Talaee R, Talaee N, Hashemi T, Nasri K, Asemi Z, Esmaillzadeh A. (2015). Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation influences biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight and vitamin D-deficient women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clinical Endocrinology; 83(6):888-94
- Jackson AS, & PollockML. (1985). "Practical assessment of body composition". Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 13, 76–90.
- Brzycki M. (1993). Strength testing: "Predicting a one-rep maxfrom repetitions-to-fatigue". Journal of Physical Education,Recreation& Dance, 64, 88–90.
- Buege JA, and Aust SD. (1978). Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol. 52:302-310.
- Bhat M, Ismail A. (2015). Vitamin D treatment protects against and reverses oxidative stress induced muscle proteolysis.The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 152:171-9.
- Huang CJ, McAllister MJ, Slusher AL, Webb HE, Mock JT, Acevedo EO. (2015). Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress:"the Impact of Physical Activity and Diet Manipulation. sports; 1(1):32.
- Mougios V. (2007). "Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 41:674-678.
- Nikolaidis MG, Protosygellou MD, Petridou A, Tsalis G, Tsigilis N, Mougios V. (2003). Hematologic and biochemical profile of juvenile and adult athletes of both sexes: implications for clinical evaluation. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 24(7):506-11.
- Brancaccio P, Maffulli N, Limongelli FM. (2007). "Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine". British Medical Bulletin. 81-82: 209-230.
- Choi M, Park H, Cho S, Lee M.(2013). "Vitamin D3 supplementation modulates inflammatory responses from the muscle damage induced by high-intensity exercise in SD rats. cytokine.63(1):27-35.
- Wiseman H. (1993)."Vitamin D is a membrane antioxidant Ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol, ergo steroland tamoxifen and relevance to anticancer action". FEBS Lett. 1993; 326: 285-8.
- Manna P and Jain S. (2015). "Vitamin D (VD) prevents oxidative stress via regulating NOX4/Nrf2/Trx signaling cascade and up regulates SIRT1-mediated MPK/IRS1/GLUT4 pathway and glucose uptake in high glucose treated 3T3L1 adipocytes". The FASEB Journal, 29:1 Supplement 253.1.
- Larson-Meyer DE, & WillisKS. (2010). "Vitamin D and athletes". Current Sports Medicine Reports, 9, 220–226.