Effect of unsaturated-high-fat-diet and aerobic training program on serum levels of adiponectin isoforms, insulin resistance and lipid profile in male obese rats

Document Type : Research Paper


1 . Assistant Professor, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran

2 . Professor, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran

3 Histology Department, Medical science University, Guilan university, Rasht, Iran


The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 10-week aerobic training and unsaturated-high-fat-diet on adiponectin serum in obese male rats. Blood samples were collected of forty-eight wistar male rats (average weight 195±5g, age 8 weeks) at 1st, 18th and 28th weeks after overnight fasting. After first sampling, remaining 40 rats were randomly divided into control (n=16) and high-fat-diet (39% of energy content from unsaturated-fat) (n=24). High-fat-diet group randomly divided in to exercise training and high-fat-diet subgroups after 18 weeks. Exercise training group ran for 10 weeks (5d/wk) with intensity equivalent to 70 to 75% of vo2max. Serum levels of total and HMW adiponectin as well as lipid profile and glycemic variables were measured. The results of this study indicate that in comparison to unsaturated-high-fat-diet, aerobic training in unsaturated-high-fat-diet induced obese male rats, increased serum concentration of total adiponectin significantly (P> 0/01). Also insulin resistance index and serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C and TG were decreased in aerobic exercise compare to high-fat-diet group (P> 0/05). This study indicates that aerobic training increase serum concentrations of total adiponectin in obese male rats even with simultaneous consumption of unsaturated-high-fat-diet and cause improvement in lipid and metabolic profiles.



1. Svensson H, Odén B, Edén S, Lönn M. Adiponectin, chemerin, cytokines, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 are released from human adipose tissue in a depot-dependent manner: an in vitro system including human serum albumin. BMC endocrine disorders. 2014;14(1):7.
2.  Moghadasi M, Mohebbi H, Rahmani-Nia F, Hassan-Nia S, Noroozi H. Effects of short-term lifestyle activity modification on adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations. European journal of sport science. 2013;13(4):378-85.
3.  Rhee E-J, Chang Y, Sohn CI, Shin H-C, Ryu S, Lee W-Y. Impact of systemic inflammation on the relationship between insulin resistance and all-cause and cancer-related mortality. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental. 2018;81:52-62.
4.         McCrindle BW. Pathogenesis and management of dyslipidemia in obese children.  Pediatric obesity: Springer; 2018. p. 419-49.
5. Antonopoulos AS, Margaritis M, Coutinho P, Shirodaria C, Psarros C, Herdman L, et al. Adiponectin As A Link Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Vascular NADPH-Oxidase Activity In The Human Arterial Wall: The Regulatory Role Of Perivascular Adipose Tissue. Diabetes. 2014:DB_141011.
6.  Aprahamian T, Bonegio RG, Richez C, Yasuda K, Chiang LK, Sato K, et al. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone ameliorates murine lupus by induction of adiponectin. Journal of immunology. 2009;182(1):340-6.
7.  Cui M, Yu H, Wang J, Gao J, Li J. Chronic caloric restriction and exercise improve metabolic conditions of dietary-induced obese mice in autophagy correlated manner without involving AMPK. Journal of diabetes research. 2013;2013.
8.  Lefevre M, Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, Smith JV, Martin CK, Rood JC, et al. Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203(1):206-13.
9.  Sahin-Efe A, Upadhyay J, Ko B-J, Dincer F, Park KH, Migdal A, et al. Irisin and leptin concentrations in relation to obesity, and developing type 2 diabetes: A cross sectional and a prospective case-control study nested in the Normative Aging Study. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental. 2018;79:24-32.
10. Harris L, Melville C, Murray H, Hankey C. The effects of multi-component weight management interventions on weight loss in adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Research in developmental disabilities. 2018;72:42-55.
11. Garekani ET, Mohebbi H, Kraemer RR, Fathi R. Exercise training intensity/volume affects plasma and tissue adiponectin concentrations in the male rat. Peptides. 2011;32(5):1008-12.
12. Boudou P, Sobngwi E, Mauvais-Jarvis F, Vexiau P, Gautier JF. Absence of exercise-induced variations in adiponectin levels despite decreased abdominal adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men. European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies. 2003;149(5):421-4.
13. Hulver MW, Zheng D, Tanner CJ, Houmard JA, Kraus WE, Slentz CA, et al. Adiponectin is not altered with exercise training despite enhanced insulin action. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism. 2002;283(4):E861-E5.
14. Wang Y, Meng R-W, Kunutsor SK, Chowdhury R, Yuan J-M, Koh W-P, et al. Plasma adiponectin levels and type 2 diabetes risk: a nested case-control study in a Chinese population and an updated meta-analysis. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1):406.
15. Després J-P, Lemieux I. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nature. 2006;444(7121):881-7.
16. Thandapilly SJ, Raj P, Louis XL, Perera D, Yamanagedara P, Zahradka P, et al. Canola oil rich in oleic acid improves diastolic heart function in diet-induced obese rats. The Journal of Physiological Sciences. 2017;67(3):425-30.
17. Gray B, Steyn F, Davies P, Vitetta L. Omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the effects on adiponectin and leptin and potential implications for obesity management. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2013;67(12):1234-42.
18. Touati S, Meziri F, Devaux S, Berthelot A, Touyz RM, Laurant P. Exercise reverses metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2011;43(3):398-407.
19. Stefanyk LE, Dyck DJ. The interaction between adipokines, diet and exercise on muscle insulin sensitivity. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2010;13(3):255-9.
20. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical chemistry. 1972;18(6):499-502.
21. van de Heijning BJ, Oosting A, Kegler D, van der Beek EM. An increased dietary supply of medium-chain fatty acids during early weaning in rodents prevents excessive fat accumulation in adulthood. Nutrients. 2017;9(6):631.
22. Tam J, Godlewski G, Earley BJ, Zhou L, Jourdan T, Szanda G, et al. Role of adiponectin in the metabolic effects of cannabinoid type 1 receptor blockade in mice with diet-induced obesity. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014;306(4):E457-E68.
23. den Besten G, Bleeker A, Gerding A, van Eunen K, Havinga R, van Dijk TH, et al. Short-chain fatty acids protect against high-fat diet–induced obesity via a PPARγ-dependent switch from lipogenesis to fat oxidation. Diabetes. 2015;64(7):2398-408.
24. Nguyen S, Shao D, Tomasi LC, Braun A, de Mattos ABM, Choi YS, et al. The Effects of Fatty Acid Composition on Cardiac Hypertrophy and Function in Mouse Models of Diet-Induced Obesity. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2017.
25. O’Leary V, Kirwan J. Adiponectin, Obesity, and Cancer.  Adipocytokines, Energy Balance, and Cancer: Springer; 2017. p. 21-38.
26. Yokoyama H, Emoto M, Araki T, Fujiwara S, Motoyama K, Morioka T, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise on plasma adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. 2004;27(7):1756-8.
27. O'Leary VB, Jorett AE, Marchetti CM, Gonzalez F, Phillips SA, Ciaraldi TP, et al. Enhanced adiponectin multimer ratio and skeletal muscle adiponectin receptor expression following exercise training and diet in older insulin-resistant adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293(1):E421-7.
28. Skurk T, Alberti-Huber C, Herder C, Hauner H. Relationship between adipocyte size and adipokine expression and secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(3):1023-33.
29. da Silveira CR, Landi MD, Campos CF, de Lima SP, de Piano A, Carnier J, et al. Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin: the role of different types of physical exercise in obese adolescents. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 2017;5-831;(6) 7,8.
30. Wijesekara N, Krishnamurthy M, Bhattacharjee A, Suhail A, Sweeney G, Wheeler MB. Adiponectin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation protects against pancreatic beta cell apoptosis and increases insulin gene expression and secretion. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2010;285(44):33623-31.
31. Mao X, Kikani C, K., Riojas R, A., Langlais P, Wang L, Ramos F, J., et al. APPL1 binds to adiponectin receptors and mediates adiponectin signalling and function. Nature cell biology. 2006;8(5):516-23.
32. Kharroubi I, Rasschaert J, Eizirik D, L., Cnop M. Expression of adiponectin receptors in pancreatic β cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2003;312(4):1118-22.
33. Liu H, Chen S, Zhang S, Xiao C, Ren Y, Tian H, et al. Adiponectin Gene Variation− 4522C/T Is Associated with Type 2 Diabetic Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Chinese. Journal of Genetics and Genomics. 2007;34(10):877-84.
34. Bjursell M, Ahnmark A, Bohlooly YM, William-Olsson L, Rhedin M, Peng XR, et al. Opposing effects of adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 on energy metabolism. Diabetes. 2007;56(3):583-93.
35. Berg AH, Combs TP, Scherer PE. ACRP30/adiponectin: an adipokine regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. 2002;13(2):8-49.
36. Yamashita AS, Lira FS, Rosa JC, Paulino EC, Brum PC, Negrão CE, et al. Depot-specific modulation of adipokine levels in rat adipose tissue by diet-induced obesity: the effect of aerobic training and energy restriction. Cytokine. 2010;52(3):168-74.
37. Yamauchi T, Iwabu M, Okada-Iwabu M, Kadowaki T. Adiponectin receptors: a review of their structure, function and how they work. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2014;28(1):15-23.
38. Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Minokoshi Y, Ito Y, Waki H, Uchida S, et al. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nature medicine. 2002;8(11):1288-95.
39. Burneiko RC, Diniz YS, Galhardi CM, Rodrigues HG, Ebaid GM, Faine LA, et al. Interaction of hypercaloric diet and physical exercise on lipid profile, oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses. Food and chemical toxicology. 2006;44(7):1167-72.