Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 MSc of Exercise Physiology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran


Exercise and physical activity have many benefits to improve the health, prevention, and treatment of diseases. But exercise also accuse complications should be controlled and increased oxidative stress is one of them. The aim of this study was to examine the compatibility of the devices in heart tissue antioxidant defense Wistar rats after continuous and intermittent exercise extreme here. A total of 18 male Wistar rats in the third group of high-intensity intermittent exercise (6 rats), exercise (6 rats) and control group (6 rats) were randomly assigned in a period of 8 weeks of exercise. 48 hours after the last training session, blood and tissue samples were collected by heart. The values of SOD and GPX heart tissue gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The results showed that SOD gene expression in both periodic and endurance training group and the control group was significantly increased. But the GPX gene expression was significantly increased only in HIT training.Exercise provides favorable changes in heart tissue and antioxidant defense system. These effects in both continuous and intermittent exercise extreme were observed. But it seems that interval training has extreme effects on antioxidant defense better.


1.Booth FW, Lees SJ. Fundamental questions about genes, inactivity, and chronic diseases. Physiological genomics. 2007;28(2):146-57.
2.Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Canadian medical association journal. 2006;174(6):801-9.
3.Powers SK, Jackson MJ. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiological reviews. 2008;88(4):1243-76.
4. Meagher E, Rader DJ. Antioxidant therapy and atherosclerosis: animal and human studies. Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2001;11(3):162-5.
5.Sen CK. Antioxidants in exercise nutrition. Sports Medicine. 2001;31(13):891-908.
6.Allen R, Tresini M. Oxidative stress and gene regulation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2000;28(3):463-99.
7. De Andrade LHS, de Moraes WMAM, Junior EHM, de Moura EdOC, Antunes HKM, Montemor J, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves oxidative stress and ubiquitin proteasome system activity in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2015;402(1-2):193-202.
8.Poblete Aro CE, Guzmán R, Antonio J, Soto Muñoz ME, Villegas González BE. Effects of high intensity interval training versus moderate intensity continuous training on the reduction of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic adult patients: CAT. Medwave. 2015;15(07).
9.Pingitore A, Lima GPP, Mastorci F, Quinones A, Iervasi G, Vassalle C. Exercise and oxidative stress: Potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports. Nutrition. 2015;31(7):916-22.
10. Rahimi M, Asgari AR, Khoshbaten A. The Role of Exercise Preconditioning in Cardioprotection against Ischemia Reperfusion Injury. Physiology and Pharmacology. 2014;18(2):122-43.
11. Powers SK, Criswell D, Lawler J, Martin D, Lieu F, Ji LL, et al. Rigorous exercise training increases superoxide dismutase activity in ventricular myocardium. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 1993;265(6):H2094-H8.
12. Judge S, Jang YM, Smith A, Selman C, Phillips T, Speakman JR, et al. Exercise by lifelong voluntary wheel running reduces subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production in the heart. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2005;289(6):R1564-R72.
13. Kavazis AN. Exercise preconditioning of the myocardium. Sports Medicine. 2009;39(11):923-35.
14. Naderi R, Mohaddes G, Mohammadi M, Ghaznavi R, Ghyasi R, Vatankhah AM. Voluntary Exercise Protects Heart from Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats. Advanced pharmaceutical bulletin. 2015;5(2):231.
15. Gul M, Demircan B, Taysi S, Oztasan N, Gumustekin K, Siktar E, et al. Effects of endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise on antioxidant defense mechanisms in rat heart. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 2006;143(2):239-45.
16. Jones JH. Resource Book for the Design of Animal Exercise Protocols. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007;68(6):583-.
17. Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2− ΔΔCT method. methods. 2001;25(4):402-8.
18. French JP, Hamilton KL, Quindry JC, Lee Y, Upchurch PA, Powers SK. Exercise-induced protection against myocardial apoptosis and necrosis: MnSOD, calcium-handling proteins, and calpain. The FASEB Journal. 2008;22(8):2862-71.
19. Cocks M, Shaw CS, Shepherd SO, Fisher JP, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, et al. Sprint interval and endurance training are equally effective in increasing muscle microvascular density and eNOS content in sedentary males. The Journal of physiology. 2013;591(3):641-56.
20. Thomas SR, Stocker R. Mechanisms of antioxidant action of ubiquinol-10 for low-density lipoprotein. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL; 2001. p. 131-50.
21. Radak Z, Asano K, Inoue M, Kizaki T, Oh-Ishi S, Suzuki K, et al. Superoxide dismutase derivative reduces oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats during exhaustive exercise. Journal of applied physiology. 1995;79(1):129-35.
22. Rahimi M, Shekarforoush S, Asgari AR, Khoshbaten A, Rajabi H, Bazgir B, et al. The effect of high intensity interval training on cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in wistar rats. EXCLI journal. 2015;14:237.
23. Schneider CD, Barp J, Ribeiro JL, Belló-Klein A, Oliveira AR. Oxidative stress after three different intensities of running. Canadian journal of applied physiology. 2005;30(6):723-34.
24. Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S. Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2008;44(2):153-9.
25. Cunningham P, Geary M, Harper R, Pendleton A, Stover S. High intensity sprint training reduces lipid peroxidation in fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online. 2005;8(6).
26. Chevion S, Moran DS, Heled Y, Shani Y, Regev G, Abbou B, et al. Plasma antioxidant status and cell injury after severe physical exercise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2003;100(9):5119-23.
27. Powers S, Sollanek K, Wiggs M, Demirel H, Smuder A. Exercise-induced improvements in myocardial antioxidant capacity: the antioxidant players and cardioprotection. Free radical research. 2014;48(1):43-51.