Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license

Authors

1 Assistant Professor in Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3 MSc in Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

Type II diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results in different undesirable effects such as cardiovascular diseases. Different methods such as correction of lifestyle and nutrition are suggested to prevent its undesirable effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10 weeks of resistance training with Vaccinium arctostaphylos supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors in women with type II diabetes. In a semi-experimental study, 31 middle-aged women with type II diabetes (mean age 41.12±3.76 years, weight 79.15±7.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 30.70±2.26) voluntarily participated in this study and were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), training (T), supplement (S) and combined (supplement + training) (ST) and followed their training protocol and supplementation for 10 weeks. Training group conducted resistance training with weights for major muscles with 40-85% of one repetition maximum (1RM) for 10 weeks, 3 sessions per week. Supplement group daily took 2 capsules (each 500mg) of Vaccinium arctostaphylos twice a day (at breakfast and lunch). Combined group had training and supplementation together while the control group did not participate in any intervention. Blood samples were collected before training and 48 hours after the last training session to measure triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin resistance. Two-way ANOVA (2*4) was used for data analysis at significance level of 0.05. The results showed a significant decrease in FBG and insulin resistance in both training and supplement groups (P<0.05). The effect of training was significant on TG, TC, LDL and HDL, but the effect of the supplement was not significant on the above mentioned factors (P˃0.05). It seems that resistance training influences lipid profile and insulin resistance and Vaccinium arctostaphylos supplement improves undesirable effects of diabetes.

Keywords

  1.  آخوندزاده، شاهین (1379). دایره‌المعارف گیاهان دارویی، تهران: ارجمند.
  2. اعتمادی بروجنی، امین؛ کارگرفرد، مهدی؛  مجتهدی، حسین؛ روزبهانی، رضا؛ دست برحق، حسین (1393). «مقایسۀ اثر 8 هفته تمرین هوازی و تمرین مقاومتی بر نیمرخ چربی در بیماران مبتلا به دیابت نوع دو»، مجلۀ دانشکدۀ پزشکی اصفهان، دورۀ 32، ش 282، ص 533-524.
  3. تاجی طبس، آسیه؛ مقرنسی، مهدی (2016). «تأثیر 10 هفته تمرین مقاومتی بر سطوح سرمی نسفاتین-1 و شاخص مقاومت به انسولین در زنان مبتلا به دیابت نوع دو»، مجلۀ دیابت و متابولیسم ایران، دورۀ 3، ش 14، ص 188-179.
  4. حقیقی، امیرحسین؛ حامدی‌نیا، محمدرضا؛ رواسی، علی‌اصغر (1388). «تأثیر تمرینات مقاومتی بر نیمرخ متابولیکی و حساسیت به انسولین در مردان چاق»، نشریۀ علوم زیستی ورزشی؛ ش 3، ص 19-5.
  5. روغنی، مهرداد؛ بلوچ‌نژاد مجرد، توراندخت؛ طاهری، ثمانه (1386). «اثر مصرف خوراکی بخش هوایی گیاه قره قاط سیاه بر میزان گلوکز و لیپیدهای خون در موش صحرایی دیابتی»، مجلۀ دیابت و متابولیسم ایران، دورۀ 7، ش 2، ص 158-151.
  6. شعبانپور اومالی، جواد؛ ثاقب‌جو، مرضیه؛ فتحی، رزیتا؛ قراری عارفی، رضا (1393). «اثر 8 ﻫﻔﺘﻪ ﺗﻤﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺘﯽ داﯾﺮه‌ای ﺑﺎ ﺷﺪت ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﻼﺳﻤﺎﯾﯽ ﻟﯿﭙﯿﺪﻫﺎ و ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ ﺑﻪ اﻧﺴﻮﻟﯿﻦ در ﺑﯿﻤﺎران ﻣﺮد ﻣﺒﺘﻼ ﺑﻪ دﯾﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﻮع 2»، پژوهشنامۀ فیزیولوژی کاربردی، دورۀ10، ش19، ص 142-135.
  7. عصارزاده نوش‌آبادی، محسن؛ عابدی، بهرام (1391). «تأثیر تمرینات ترکیبی بر شاخص­های مقاومت به انسولین و برخی مارکرهای التهابی در مردان غیرفعال»، هفته‌نامۀ افق دانش، دورۀ 18، ش3، ص 101-95.
  8. عماد، مهدی؛ غیبی، فریبرز؛ رسولی، سید محسن؛ خانجانزاده، رسول؛ محمدی جوزانی، سعید (1391). گیاه دارویی- صنعتی قره قات، نشر پونه.
  9. میرفیضی، مانی؛ مهدی‌زاده تورزنی، زهرا؛ اصغری جعفرآبادی، محمد؛ رضوانی، حمیدرضا؛ میرفیضی، سیده زهرا (1391). «اثر میوۀ قره قاط بر کنترل گلوکز و لیپیدهای خون در بیماران دیابتی نوع دو»، مجلۀ علمی پژوهشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ارتش، دورۀ10، ش 3، ص 231-225.

10.Bjorntorp P. (1992). "Regional fat distribution: implications for type II diabetes". International Journal of Obesity and related metaboloc disorders; 16: 519 –527

11.Burcelin R, Rolland E, Dolci W, Germain S, Carrel V, Thorens b. (1999). "Encapsulated genetically engineered cells, secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus". Ann N Y Acad Sci.; 875: 277-85.

12.Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munoz-orians L, Gerdon PL, Walsmith J, Foldvari M, Roubenoff R,Tucker KL, Nelson ME.(2002). "A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Care25; PP: 2335-2341.

13.Chao M, Zou D, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Wang M, Wu H, et al.(2009). "Improving insulin resistance with traditional Chinese medicine in type 2 diabetic patients". Endocrine; 36(2): 268-74.

14.Eriksson J.G. (1999). "Exercise and the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus". Sports medicine; 27(6): 381-391

15.Del Bo C, Martini D, Porrini M, Klimis-Zacas D, Riso P, (2015). "Berries and oxidative stress markers: an overview of human intervention studies". Food & function; 6(9)P:2890-2917.

16.Feshani A.M, Kouhsari S.M, Mohammadi S, (2011). "Vaccinium Arctostaphylos, a common herbal medicine in Iran: Molecular and biochemical study of its antidiabetic effects on alloxan-diabetic Wistar rats". Journal of ethno pharmacology; 133(1) P: 67-74.

17.Granfeldt YE, Bjorck IM, (2011). "A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults". Nutrition journal;10:57

18.Hafstad A.D, Boardman N, Aasum E, (2015). "How exercise may amend metabolic disturbances in diabetic cardiomyopathy", antioxidants and redox signaling; 22(17):1587-1605

19.Henriksen EJ (2002). "Effects of acute exercise and exercise training on insulin resistance". J Appl Physiol; 93(2) PP: 788-96.

20.Idris I, Al-Ubaidi F. (2010). "Discordance between non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in patients with diabetes without previous cardiovascular events". Diabetes Metab;. 36(4):299-304.

21.Kessler HS, Sisson SB, Short KR. (2012). "The potential for high-intensity interval training to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk". Sports Med. 42:489-509.

22.Kianbakht S, Abasi B, Dabaghian FH. (2011). "Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Vaccinium arctostaphylos in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized controlled trial". Research in complimentary Medicine; 20 (1):17-22

23.King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. (1998), Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care. 21: 1414-1431.

24.Poehlman ET, Dvorak RV, Denio WF, Brochu M, Ades PA (2000). "Effects of resistance training and endurance training on insulin sensitivity in non-obese, young women: A controlled randomized trial". J Clin Endocrinol Metabol; 85(7); PP:2463-8

25.Saiiari A, Moslehi M. (2011). "Interactive effects of sulfonylurea drugs, aerobic and strength training on glycemic control in type II diabetes". Procedia Soc Behav Sci; 15: 1792-97.

26.Soltani R, Hakimi M, Asgary S, Ghanadian S.M, Keshvari M, et al. (2014). "Evaluation of the effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Fruit extract on serum lipids and hs-CRP levels and oxidative stress in adult patients with hyperlipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial" Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; P:1-6.

27.Takikawa M, Inoue S, Horio F, Tsuda T. (2010). "Dietary anthocyaninrich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice". J Nutr; 140(3): 527-33.

28. Tibana R. A, Navalta J, Bottaro M, Vieira D, Tajra V, et al.(2014). "Effects of eight weeks of resistance training on the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight /obese women - “A Pilot Study". Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum; 16(5):522-532.

29.Xie W, Zhao Y, Zhang Y. (2011). "Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 726723: 1-13.

30.Yanardag R, Bolkent S, Ozsoy-Sacan O, Karabulut-Bulan O. (2002)."The effect of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) extract on the kidney tissue, serum urea, and creatinine levels of diabetic rats". Physiotherapy Res; 16:758-761.