Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license

Authors

1 Ph.D. in Exercise Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology and Corrective Movement, Sport Sciences Faculty , Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology and Corrective Movement, Sport Sciences Faculty , Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Department of Clinical Pathology, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta is a regulator key of many signaling pathways. It is reported that inhibition of this kinase increases neuronal survival. Accordingly, in this study, the effect of 6 weeks of endurance training on the gene expression of GSK-3β in the motor area of the spinal cord of male Wistar rats with diabetic neuropathy was investigated. For this aim, 16 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy control, healthy trained, neuropathy control, neuropathy trained. Intraperitoneal injection of a STZ (streptozotocin) solution (45 mg/kg) was used to induce diabetes. 2 weeks after STZ injection, the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia tests demonstrated the diabetic neuropathy. A moderate endurance training protocol was performed for 6 weeks. 24 hours after the last training session, the rats were sacrificed and the L4-L6 motor neurons of the spinal cord tissue were removed. GSK-3β mRNA expression was performed using Real Time-PCR. Statistical analysis showed that neuropathy trained group experienced a decrease in the GSK-3β expression compared with neuropathy control group (P=0.02). On the other hand, there was a significant difference between healthy control and neuropathy control groups (P=0.02), that is to say the gene expression increased in neuropathy control group. However, there was no significant difference between healthy control and neuropathy trained groups. The results show that one of the factors involved in the spread of damage to motor neurons of diabetic neuropathy is incremental regulation of mRNAGSK-3β and training as a non-pharmacotherapy strategy can modulate and return it to normal levels. Therefore, it is suggested that GSK-3β should receive attention as a novel treatment target in diabetes.
 

Keywords

 
1. Arngrimsson SA, Petitt DS, Stueck MG, Jorgensen DK, Cureton KJ. (2004). “Cooling vest worn during active warm-up improves 5-km run performance in the heat”. J Appl Physiol (1985), 96(5), pp:1867-74.
2. Bongers CC, Thijssen DH, Veltmeijer MT, Hopman MT, Eijsvogels TM. (2014). “Precooling and percooling (cooling during exercise) both improve performance in the heat: a meta-analytical review”. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports-2013-092928.
3. Booth J, Wilsmore B, Macdonald A, Zeyl A, McGhee S, Calvert D, et al. (2001). “Whole-body pre-cooling does not alter human muscle metabolism during sub-maximal exercise in the heat”. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 84(6), pp:587-90.
4. Borekova M, Hojerova J, Koprda V, Bauerova K. (2008). “Nourishing and health benefits of coenzyme Q10-a review”. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 26(4), pp:229-41.
5. Botros M, Sikaris KA. (2013). “The de ritis ratio: the test of time”. Clin Biochem Rev, 34(3), pp:117-30.
6. Clarkson PM, Kearns AK, Rouzier P, Rubin R, Thompson PD. (2006). “Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage”. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(4), pp:623-7.
7. Demirci N, Beytut E. (2014). “Effects of oral coenzyme Q10 on preventing the accumulation of lactic acid developing during the exercise performances of endurance skiing athletes”. American Journal of Sports Science, 2(3), pp:65-70.
8. Doubt TJ. (1991). “Physiology of exercise in the cold”. Sports Medicine (Auckland, NZ), 11(6), pp:367-81.
9. Figueiredo P, Zamparo P, Sousa A, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ. (2011). “An energy balance of the 200 m front crawl race”. Eur J Appl Physiol, 111(5), pp:767-77.
10. Hall DM, Buettner GR, Oberley LW, Xu L, Matthes RD, Gisolfi CV. (2001). “Mechanisms of circulatory and intestinal barrier dysfunction during whole body hyperthermia”. American Journal of Physiology Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 280(2), pp:H509-21.
11. Hasegawa H, Takatori T, Komura T, Yamasaki M. (2006). “Combined effects of pre-cooling and water ingestion on thermoregulation and physical capacity during exercise in a hot environment”. J Sports Sci, 24(1), pp:3-9.
12. Heyward VH, Gibson A. (2014). “Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription 7th edition”. Human kinetics.
13. Jones PR, Barton C, Morrissey D, Maffulli N, Hemmings S. (2012). “Pre-cooling for endurance exercise performance in the heat: a systematic review”. BMC Med, 10(1), pp:166.
14. Kon M, Tanabe K, Akimoto T, Kimura F, Tanimura Y, Shimizu K, et al. (2008). “Reducing exercise-induced muscular injury in kendo athletes with supplementation of coenzyme Q10”. British Journal of Nutrition, 100(04), pp:903-9.
15. Leelarungrayub D, Sawattikanon N, Klaphajone J, Pothongsunan P, Bloomer RJ. (2010). “Coenzyme Q10 supplementation decreases oxidative stress and improves physical performance in young swimmers: A pilot study”. The Open Sports Medicine Journal, 4(1).
16. Marsh D, Sleivert G. (1999). “Effect of precooling on high intensity cycling performance”. Br J Sports Med, 33(6), pp:393-7.
17. Matsuse H, Shiba N, Umezu Y, Nago T, Maeda T, Tagawa Y, et al. (2006). “Effects of a hybrid exercise on the activities of myogenic enzymes in plasma”. Kurume Med J, 53(3-4), pp:47-51.
18. Miles MV. (2007). “The uptake and distribution of coenzyme Q(10)”. Mitochondrion, 7, pp:S72-S7.
19. Mizuno K, Tanaka M, Nozaki S, Mizuma H, Ataka S, Tahara T, et al. (2008). “Antifatigue effects of coenzyme Q10 during physical fatigue”. Nutrition, 24(4), pp:293-9.
20. Onur S, Niklowitz P, Jacobs G, Nöthlings U, Lieb W, Menke T, et al. (2014). “Ubiquinol reduces gamma glutamyltransferase as a marker of oxidative stress in humans”. BMC Research Notes, 7(1), pp:1.
21. Rahal A, Kumar A, Singh V, Yadav B, Tiwari R, Chakraborty S, et al. (2014). “Oxidative stress, prooxidants, and antioxidants: the interplay”. Biomed Res Int, 2014, 761264.
22. Riewald S, Rodeo S. (2015). “Science of Swimming Faster”. Human Kinetics.
23. Rodríguez FA, Mader A. (2011). “Energy systems in swimming”. World Book of Swimming From Science to Performance, New York: Nova, pp:225-40.
24. Ross M, Abbiss C, Laursen P, Martin D, Burke L. (2013). “Precooling methods and their effects on athletic performance”. Sports Medicine, 43(3), pp:207-25.
25. Santos-Silva A, Rebelo MI, Castro EM, Belo L, Guerra A, Rego C, et al. (2001). “Leukocyte activation, erythrocyte damage, lipid profile and oxidative stress imposed by high competition physical exercise in adolescents”. Clin Chim Acta, 306(1-2), pp:119-26.
26. Sawka MN, Leon LR, Montain SJ, Sonna LA. (2011). “Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress”. Compr Physiol, 1(4), pp:1883-928.
27. Shirvani H. (2016). “Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on lipid peroxidation indeces in soccer player”. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences, 17(4), Pe55-Pe60, En1.
28. Siegel R, Maté J, Watson G, Nosaka K, Laursen PB. (2012). “Pre-cooling with ice slurry ingestion leads to similar run times to exhaustion in the heat as cold water immersion”. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(2), pp:155-65.
29. Tauler P, Ferrer MD, Romaguera D, Sureda A, Aguilo A, Tur J, et al. (2008). “Antioxidant response and oxidative damage induced by a swimming session: influence of gender”. J Sports Sci, 26(12), pp:1303-11.
30. Tsai KL, Chen LH, Chiou SH, Chiou GY, Chen YC, Chou HY, et al. (2011). “Coenzyme Q10 suppresses oxLDL-induced endothelial oxidative injuries by the modulation of LOX-1-mediated ROS generation via the AMPK/PKC/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway”. Mol Nutr Food Res, 55 Suppl 2(S2), pp:S227-40.
31. Tyler CJ, Sunderland C, Cheung SS. (2015). “The effect of cooling prior to and during exercise on exercise performance and capacity in the heat: a meta-analysis”. Br J Sports Med, 49(1), pp:7-13.
32. Uckert S, Joch W. (2007). “Effects of warm-up and precooling on endurance performance in the heat”. Br J Sports Med, 41(6), pp:380-4.