An Examination of the Changes in IL-15, CRP and Serum Irisin in Different Rest Intervals after a Session of Resistance Activity in the Elderly

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Ph.D. Student of Exercise Physiology-Sport Biochemistry and Metabolism, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

 
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of IL-15, CRP and serum irisin after one session of resistance activity in the elderly at different intervals with a view on the possibility of changing the muscles and improving sarcopenia. 15 elderly (mean age 63.32 ± 4.5 years, height 168.61 ± 2.33 cm and weight 78.5 ± 4.2 kg) voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed weight training for 45 minutes in 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% 1RM intensity with 2- minute rest intervals and 3-minute intervals. For statistical analysis of data, one-way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test were used (P<0.05). The findings showed that levels of IL-15 and irisin significantly increased immediately after the test and levels of CRP and irisin significantly increased 24 hours after the test (P<0.05). Inflammatory factors showed a significant increase 72 hours after the test compared with the period before the activity (P<0.05). So, a session of resistance activity can elevate the levels of some of these factors in the elderly which may function as a factor which affects the improvement of muscle function and especially the control of sarcopenia in these people.
 

Keywords


  1.  اراضی، حمید؛ دمیرچی، ارسلان؛ مصطفی‌لو، علی (1388). «اثرات یک جلسه تمرین موازی استقامتی- مقاومتی بر تغییرات هماتولوژیک مردان ورزشکار»، فیزیولوژی ورزش، ش 2، ص 26-17.
    1. Arazi H, Asadi A., (2013). One repetition maximum test increases serum indices of muscle damage and soreness in trained and untrained males. Apunts Med Esport; 48(178): 49-54.
    2. Barquilha G, Uchida MC, Santos VC, Moura NR, Lambertucci RH, Hatanaka E., (2011). Characterization of the effects of one maximal repetition test on muscle injury and inflammation markers. Web med Central Physiol, 2:1-8.
    3. Barra NG, Chew MV, Reid S, Ashkar AA., (2012). Interleukin-15 treatment induces weight loss independent of lymphocytes. PLoS ONE, 7(6): e39553.
    4. Bostrom P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L, Lo JC., (2012). A PGC-1a dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature, 481: 463–468.
    5. Brenmoeh J, Albrecht E, Komolka K, Schering L, Langhammer M, Hoeflich A, Maak S., (2014). Irisin Is Elevated in Skeletal Muscle and Serum of Mice Immediately after Acute Exercise, Int. J. Biol. Sci, 10: 338-349.
    6. Brown WM, Davison GW, McClean CM, Murphy MH., (2015). A Systematic Review of the Acute Effects of Exercise on Immune and Inflammatory Indices in Untrained Adults. Sports Medicine; 1:35, 1-10.
    7. Derbre F, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Nascimento AL, Sanchis-Gomar F, Martinez-Bello VE, Tresguerres JA, Fuentes T, Gratas-Delamarche A, Monsalve M, Vina J., (2012). Age associated low mitochondrial biogenesis may be explained by lack of response of PGC-1alpha to exercise training. Age (Dordr.), 34: 669–679.
    8. Franceschi C, Bonafe M, Valensin S, Olivieri F, De Luca M, Ottaviani E, De Benedictis G., (2000). Inflamm-aging. An evolutionary perspective on immunosenescence. Ann NY Acad Sci, 908: 244–254.
    9. Gatta PD, Garnham AP, Peake JM, Smith DC., (2014). Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 39 (2014): 80–86.(s1)
    10. Huh JY, Mougios V, Kabasakalis A, Fatouros I, Siopi A, Douroudos II, Filippaios A, Panagiotou G, Park KH, Mantzoros CS., (2014). Exercise-induced irisin secretion is independent of age or fitness level and increased irisin may directly modulate muscle metabolism through AMPK activation. J Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, 99: E2154–E2161.
    11. Huh JY, Panagiotou G, Mougios V, Brinkoetter M, Vamvini MT, Scheneider BE, Mantzoros CS., (2012). FNDC5 and Irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise. Metabolism, 61: 1725-1738.
    12. Inoue DS, Panissa VG, Monterio PA, Gerosa NJ, Rossi FC, Antunes BM, Franchini E, CholewaJM, Gobbo LA, BIO S. Lira BS., (2015). Immunometabolic responses to concurrent training the effects of exercise order in recreational weight lifters. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 1: 1-7.
    13. Janssen I, Ross R., (2005). Linking age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass and composition with metabolism and disease. J Nutr Health Aging, 9: 408–419.
    14. Janssen I., (2006). Influence of sarcopenia on the development of physical disability: the cardiovascular health study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 54: 56–62.
    15. Justin WL. Keogh L, Winwood PW., (2016). The Epidemiology of Injuries across the Weight Training Sports: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine, 1-58.
    16. Kelly DP., (2012). Irisin, light my fire. Medicine Science, 336: 42–43.
    17. Kramer HF, Goodyear LJ., (2007). Exercise, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol, 103(1): 388–95.
    18. Liu J., (2015). Irisin as an exercise-stimulated hormone binding crosstalk between organs. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 19: 316-321.
    19. Loffler D, Muller U, Scheuermann K, Friebe D, Gesing J, Bielitz J, Erbs S, Landgraf K, Wagner IV, Kiess W, Korner A., (2015). Serum Irisin Levels Are Regulated by Acute Strenuous Exercise, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 100(4):1289–1299.
    20. Mao Y, Xu W, Xie Z, Dong Q., (2015). Association of Irisin and CRP Levels with the Radiographic Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis. Genetc testing and molecular biomarkers, 1–4.(s8)
    21. Molanouri Shamsi M, Mohammad Hassan Z, Quinn L S, Gharakhanlou R, Baghersad L, Mahdavi M., (2014). Time course of IL-15 expression after acute resistance exercise in trained rats: effect of diabetes and skeletal muscle phenotype. Endocrine, 1-8.
    22. Norheim F, Mikal Langleite T, Hjorth M, Holen T, Kielland A, Stadheim HK, Gulseth HL, Birkeland KI, Jensen J, Drevon1 CA., (2014). The effects of acute and chronic exercise on PGC-1a, irisin and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. FEBS Journal, 281: 739–749.
    23. Pekkala S, Wiklund PK, Hulmi JJ, Ahtiainen JP, Horttanainen M, Pollanen E, Makela KA, Kainulainen H, Hakkinen K, Nyman K., (2013). Are skeletal muscle FNDC5 gene expression and irisin release regulated by exercise and related to health? J Physiol, 591: 5393–5400.
    24. Quinn LS, Anderson BG, Conner JD, Pistilli EE, Wolden-Hanson T., (2011). Overexpression of IL-15 in mice promotes resistance to diet-induced obesity, increased insulin sensitivity, and markers of oxidative skeletal muscle metabolism. Intl J Interferon Cytok Med Res, 3: 29–42.
    25.  Quinn LS, Anderson BG, Conner JD, Wolden-Hanson T, Marcell TJ., (2014). IL-15 is required for post-exercise induction of the prooxidative mediators PPARd and SIRT1 in male mice. Endocrinology, 155: 143–155.
    26. Quinn LS, Anderson BG, Conner JD, Wolden-Hanson T., (2015). Circulating irisin levels and muscle FNDC5 mRNA expression are independent of IL-15 levels in mice. Endocrine, 50: 368–377.
    27. Raschke S. Eckel J., (2013). Adipo-myokines: two sides of the same coin-mediators of inflammation and mediators of exercise.Mediators Inflamm, 3: 320-324.
    28. Raschke S. Eckel J., (2013). Adipo-myokines: two sides of the same coin-mediators of inflammation and mediators of exercise. Mediators Inflamm; 3: 320-324.
    29. Roca-Rivada A, Castelao C, Senin LL, Landrove MO, Baltar J, Belen Crujeiras A, Seoane LM, Casanueva FF, Pardo M, FNDC5/irisin is not only a myokine but also an adipokine, PLoS One, 2013; 8, e60563.
    30. Sanchis-Gomar F, Derbre F., (2014). Mitochondrial fission and fusion in human diseases. N. Engl. J. Med, 370: 1073–1074.
    31. Tsuchiya Y, Ando D, Goto K, Kiuchi M, Mitsuya Yamakita4 and Katsuhiro Koyama., (2014). High-Intensity Exercise Causes Greater Irisin Response Compared with Low-Intensity Exercise under Similar Energy Consumption, J. Exp. Med, 233: 135-140.
    32. Wrann CD, White JP, Salogiannnis J, Laznik-Bogoslavski D, Wu J., Ma D, Lin, JD, Greenberg ME, Spiegelman BM., (2013).Exercise induces hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1α/FNDC5 pathway. Cell Metab, 18: 649-659.