Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license

Authors

1 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Physical Education and Sport Sciences Department, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student of Motor Learning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Ph.D. Student of Motor Behavior, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

 
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of endurance exercise on the level of focus of attention and brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) in non-athlete male and female students and to investigate the relationship between variations in these factors. 30 non-athlete students (mean age 24.1+1.6 years) were assigned to 4 groups: males, females, male control and female control based on the Stroop pretest. After blood samples were collected, they continued their endurance exercises for 5 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 40 min. each session with the intensity of 70-85% maximum heart rate based on the endurance exercise protocol. Results showed that endurance exercise significantly increased BDNF in both male and females) P<0.05), but the time of response to Stroop test significantly decreased only in male group) P<0.05). In addition, the results showed no significant differences between male and female groups in the effectiveness of endurance exercise on the time of response to Stroop test (P>0.05), but level of BDNF was significantly more in female group than the male group (P<0.05). The correlation between variations of response time to Stroop test and level of BDNF was not statistically significant in both male and female groups (P>0.05). Finally, according to these findings, it seems that endurance exercise can increase BDNF level and improve focus, but there are possible differences between males and females that need further research.

Keywords

  1. امیرساسان، رامین؛ میرشفیعی، عباس؛ گایینی، عباسعلی؛ رواسی، علی‌اصغر (1386). «تأثیر فعالیت هوازی درمانده‌ساز بر ماتریکس متالوپروتئینازها در ورزشکاران و غیرورزشکاران»، المپیک. سال پانزدهم. ش 4(پیاپی40)، ص 72-59.
  2. حامدی‌نیا، محمدرضا؛ حقیقی، امیرحسین (1386). «تأثیر تمرینات مقاومتی و استقامتی بر مولکول‌های چسبان محلول در گردش خون مردان سالم نسبتاً چاق»، المپیک، سال پانزدهم، ش 2(پیاپی38)، ص 58-49.
  3. محمدزاده سلامت، خالد؛ رجبی، حمید؛ نوروزیان، منیژه؛ بهرامی­نژاد، مرتضی (1389). «تأثیر چهار هفته تمرین هوازی همراه با محدود کردن حرکت قفسه سینه بر توان هوازی و عملکرد قلبی-تنفسی افراد سالم»، المپیک، سال هجدهم، ش 2 (پیاپی50)، ص 18-7.
  4. مشهدی، علی؛ رسول­زاده طباطبایی، کاظم؛ آزاد فلاح، پرویز؛ سلطانی­فر، عاطفه (1388). «مقایسۀ بازداری پاسخ و کنترل تداخل در کودکان مبتلا به اختلال نارسایی توجه فزون­کنشی و کودکان بهنجار»، مجلۀ روان‌شناسی بالینی. سال اول(2)، ص 37-5.
    1. Baron, I. S. (Ed.). (2004). “Neuropsychological Evaluation of the Child (1 ed.) ”. New York: Oxford University Press.
    2. Brutvan, J. J. (2011). “The Effect of Exercise on Cognitive Function as Measured by Impact Protocol: Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic”. MA, Kent State University.
    3. Catai, A. M.; Chacon-Mikahil, M. P. T.; Martinelli, F. S.; Forti, V. A. M.; Silva, E.; Golfetti, R. (2002). “Effects of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability during wakefulness and sleep and cardiorespiratory responses of young and middle-aged healthy men”. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 35:741-752.
    4. Chun, M. M.; Turk-Browne, N. B. (2007). “Interactions between attention and memory”. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 17(2):177-184.
    5. Cirulli, F.; Francia, N.; Branchi, I.; Antonucci, M, T.; Aloe, L.; Suomi, S.; Alleva, E. (2009). “Changes in plasma levels of BDNF and NGF reveal a gender-selective vulnerability to early adversity in rhesus macaques”. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 34:172–180.
    6. Cotman, C. W.; Berchtold, N. C.; Christie, L.A. (2007). “Exercise builds brain health: key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation”. Trends in Neurosciences. 30(9):464-472
    7. Deister,C.; Schmidt, C.E. (2006). “Op mizing neurotrophic factor combina ons for neurite outgrowth”. Journal of Neural Engineering. Vol.3:172-179.
    8. Fang, L.; Jian-Wei, Zh.; Rong, W.; Xue-Gang, L.; Jian-Yi, Zh.; Xin-Fu, Zh.; Chang-Qi, L.; Ru-Ping, D. (2010). “Sex-differential modulation of visceral pain by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)inrats”. Neuroscience Letters. 478:184–187.
    9. Farmer, J.; Zhao, X.; van Praag, H.; Wodtke, K.; Gage, F. H.; Christie, B. R. (2004). “Effects of voluntary exercise on synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the dentate gyrus of adult male sprague–dawley rats in vivo”. Neuroscience. 124(1):71-79.
    10. Ferris, L. T.; Williams, J. S.; Shen, C.L. (2007). “The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 39(4):728–734.
    11. Fisher, A. (2008). “Relationships Between Physical Activity and Motor and Cognitive Function in Young Children”. A Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
    12. Griffin, É. W.; Mullally, S.; Foley, C.; Warmington, S. A.; O'Mara, S. M.; Kelly, Á. M. (2011). “Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males”. Physiology & Behavior. 104(5):934-941.
    13. Hillman, C. H.; Erickson, K. I.; Kramer, A. F. (2008). “Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition”. [10.1038/nrn2298]. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 9(1):58-65.
    14. Nofuji, Y.; Suwa, M.; Sasaki, H.; Ichimiya, A.; Nishichi, R.; Kumagai, S. (2010). “Different circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor responses to acute exercise between physically active and sedentary subjects”. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 11:83-88.
    15. Ruscheweyh, R.; Willemer, C.; Krüger, K.; Duning, T.; Warnecke, T.; Sommer, J., et al. (2011). “Physical activity and memory functions: An interventional study”. Neurobiology of Aging. 32(7):1304-1319.
    16. Sam-Wook, C.; Sooyoung, B.; Joon-Ho, A. (2011). “Diurnal variation and gender differences of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor In healthy human subjects”. Psychiatry Research. 186:427-430.
    17. Schmidt-Kassow , M.; Schädle, S.; Otterbein, S.; Thiel, C.; Doehring, A.; Lötsch, J.; Kaiser, J. (2012 ). “Kinetics of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor following low-intensity versus high-intensity exercise in men and women”. Neuroreport. 23(15):889-93.
    18. Seifert, T.; Brassard, P.; Wissenberg, M.; Rasmussen, P.; Nordby, P.; Stallknecht, B.; et al. (2010). “Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain”. American Journal of Physiology-regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 298(2):372–377.
    19. Shun-Wei, Zh. (2006). “Brain neurotrophin levels and mouse behavior”: relationship to environmental influences.
    20. Stroop, J. R. (1992). “Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions”. Experimental Psychology-general. 121(1):15-23.
    21. Zoladz, J.; Pilc, A.; Majerczak, J.; Grandys, M.; Zapart-Bukowska, J.; Duda, K. (2008). “Endurance training increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration in young healthy men”. Physiol Pharmacol. 59(Suppl 7):119-132.
    22. Zoladz, J. A.; Pilc, A. (2010). “The effect of physical activity on the brain derived neurotrophic factor”: from animal to human studies. Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society. 61(5):533-541.