Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license
Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran
MSc of Exercise Physiology, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on fibroblast growth factor 21 and adiponectin in obese men. 20 obese men were selected and randomly divided into experimental group (age 29.40±3.34 years, height 1.80±0.053 m, weight 108.10±7.86 kg, body mass index 33.13±1.68 kg/m2) and control group (age 29.80±2.39 years, height 1.79±0.052 m, weight 106.80±8.16 kg, body mass index 33.13±1.93 kg/m2). The experimental group performed aerobic exercises with an intensity of 60-75% of target heart rate for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected after 12 to 14 hours of fasting before and after 8 weeks. Data were analyzed with covariance analysis at P≤0.05. The results showed that 8 weeks of aerobic exercise significantly increased fibroblast growth factor 21 (P=0.011), adiponectin (P=0.000), performance of beta cell (P=0.008) and insulin (P=0.000) compared to the control group. Also, glucose levels had no significant changes after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise in the experimental group compared with the control group (P>0.05). Based on these findings, aerobic exercise may improve the performance of pancreatic beta cells in obese men through an increase in adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor 21 levels and also favorable changes in serum insulin.
- Arner P, Pettersson A, Mitchell PJ, Dunbar JD, Kharitonenkov A, et al. FGF21 attenuates lipolysis in human adipocytes: a possible link to improved insulin sensitivity. Federation of European Biochemical Societies letters. 2008; 582: 1725–1730.
- Asayama K, Hayashibe H, Dobashi K, Uchida N, Nakane T, Kodera K. Decrease in serum adiponectin level due to obesity and visceral fat accumulation in children. Obesity research. 2003; 11(9):1072-1079.
- Chen C, Cheung BM, Tso AW, Wang Y, Law LS, Ong KL, et al. High plasma level of fibroblast growth factor 21 is an Independent predictor of type 2 diabetes: a 5.4‐year population‐based prospective study in Chinese subjects. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34(9): p. 2113‐5.
- Cuevas-Ramos D, Almeda-Valdés P, Gómez-Pérez FJ, Meza-Arana CE, Cruz-Bautista I, et al. Daily physical activity, fasting glucose, uric acid, and body mass index are independent factors associated with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. European Federation of Endocrine Societies. 2010; 163: 469–477.
- Cuevas-Ramos D, Almeda-Valdés P, Meza-Arana CE, Brito-Córdova G, Gómez-Pérez FJ, et al. Exercise Increases Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) Levels. Public Library of Science. 2012; 7(5): 38022.
- De Glisezinski I, Larrouy D, Bajzova M, Koppo K, Polak J, et al. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. The Journal of physiology. 2009; 587: 3393–3404.
- Dehghani K, Mogharnasi M. Effects of Ten Weeks of Aerobic Interval Training and Four Weeks Detraining on Plasma Adiponectin Level in Male Student Non-Athletes. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2015; 7: 10-18
- Dridi S, Taouis M. Adiponectin and energy homeostasis: consensus and controversy. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2009; 20:831- 839.
- Dutchak PA, Katafuchi T, Bookout AL, Choi JH, Yu RT, Mangelsdorf DJ, et al., Fibroblast growth factor‐21 regulates PPARgamma activity and the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones. Cell. 2012. 148(3): 556‐67.
- George PN, Katerina P, Katarina Sk. Aerobicexercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes inbody weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girl’s metabolism. Clinical and Experimental. 2005; 54:
- Giannopoulou I, Fernhall Bo, Carhart R, Weinstock RS. Effects of diet and/or exercise on the adipocytokine and inflammatory cytokine levels of postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 2005; 54; 866– 875.
- Goropashnaya AV, Herron J, Sexton M, Havel PJ, Stanhope KL, Plaetke R, et al. Relationships between plasma adiponectin and body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and plasma lipoproteins in alaskan yup'ik eskimos: the center for alaska native health research study. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 2009; 58(1):22-29.
- Hui X, Lam KS, Vanhoutte PM, Xu A. Adiponectin and cardiovascular health: an update. British journal of pharmacology. 2012; 165(3): p. 574‐90.
- Inagaki, T, , Dutchak P, Zhao G, Ding X, Gautron L, Parameswara V, et al. Endocrine regulation of the fasting response by PPARalpha‐mediated induction of fibroblast growth factor 21. Cell metabolism. 2007; 5(6): p. 415‐25.
- Jeon JY, Jin Han, Hyun-Jun K, Moon Soo P, Dae Yun S, Yi-Su K. The combined effects of physical exercise training and detraining on adiponectin in overweight and obese children. Integrative Medicine Research. 2013; 145–150
- Jurimae J, Purge P, Jurimae T. Adiponectin and stress hormone responses to maximal sculling after volume-extended training season in elite rowers. Metabolism. 2006; 55; 13-19.
- Kharitonenkov A, Shiyanova TL, Koester A, Ford AM, Micanovic R, et al. FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2005; 115: 1627–1635.
- Kondo T, Kobayashi I, Murakami M. Effect of exercise on circulating adipokine in obese young women .Endocrine journal. 2006; 53.189- 195.
- Kraemer R, and Castracane D. Exercise and humoral mediators of peripheral energy balance: ghrelin and adiponectin. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2007; 232(2):184-194.
- Li X, Ge H, Weiszmann J, Hecht R, Li YS, Véniant MM, et al. Inhibition of lipolysis may contribute to the acute regulation of plasma FFA and glucose by FGF21 in ob/ob mice. Federation of European Biochemical Societies. 2009; 583(19): p. 3230‐4.
- Lundasen T, Hunt MC, Nilsson LM, Sanyal S, Angelin B, et al. PPAR alfa is a key regulator of hepatic FGF21. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2007; 360; 437–440
- Mai K, Andres J, Biedasek K, Weicht J, Bobbert T, et al. Free fatty acids link metabolism and regulation of the insulin-sensitizing fibroblast growth factor 21. Diabetes. 2009; 58(7): p. 1532‐8.
- Martin LJ, Woo JG, Daniels SR, Goodman E, and Dolan LM. 2005; the relationships of adiponectin with insulin and lipids are strengthened with increasing adiposity: The journal of clinical European Journal of Endocrinology. 152(3): 427-436.
- Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN, Duncan PW, Judge JO, King AC, et al. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. American Heart Association.2007; 39:1435-45.
- Pilz S, Horejsi R, Moller R, Almer G, Scharnagl H, Stojakovic T, et al. Early atherosclerosis in obese juveniles is associated with low serum levels of adiponectin. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2005; 90(8):4792-4796.
- Potthoff MJ, Inagaki T, Satapati S, Ding X, He T, et al. FGF21 induces PGC-1alfa and regulates carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during the adaptive starvation response. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2009; 106: 10853–10858.
- Rubin DA, McMurray GR, Harrell JS. The association between insulin resistance and cytokines in adolescents: the role of weight status and exercise. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 2008; 57; 683–690.
- Tang Z, YUAN L, Chengying GU, Yun L. Effect of Exercise on the Expression of Adiponectin mRNA and GLUT4 mRNA in Type 2 Diabetic Rats .Journal of physiology. 2005; 71; 534-541.
- Tongjian Y, Barbara JN. Effects of exercise on adipokines and the metabolic syndrome. Current Diabetes Reports. 2008; 8:7-11.
- Veniant MV, Clarence H, Joan H, Michelle MC, Shanaka S, Busby J, et al, FGF21 promotes metabolic homeostasis via white adipose and leptin in mice. Public Library of Science, 2012; 7(7): 40164.
- Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Ito Y, Tsuchida A, Yokomizo T, Kita S, et al, Cloning of adiponectin receptors the mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Nature 2003; 423; 762–769.
- Yan H, Xia M, Chang X, Xu Q, Bian H, et al. Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 levels are closely associated with hepatic fat content: A cross-sectional study. Public Library of Science. 2011; 6: 24895.
- Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. Prescribing exercise as preventive therapy. Canadian Medical Association journal. 2006; 174:961-74.