Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 Islamic azad university,central Tehran branch

2 Department of Exercise Physiology, school of physical education and sport science, Islamic ‎Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran‎


Normal liver function is of crucial importance for metabolism and might be affected by exercise training. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of resistance training with various intensities on liver function test results in obese males. According to the inclusion criteria of the study, 32 obese males were selected and randomly assigned to 4 groups (each group 8 subjects): control, resistance training with low intensity (30% 1-RM), resistance training with moderate intensity (50% 1-RM) and resistance training with high intensity (70% 1-RM). Three groups carried out the resistance training with different intensities 3 times a week. Blood samples were measured in the pretest, mid-test and posttest (after 12 hours of overnight fasting). The collected data were analyzed by variance analysis test with repeated measures. Body fat percent, ALT, GGT and AST significantly reduced in experimental groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in non-enzymatic markers (TB, ALB). According to these results, it can be concluded that resistance training improves enzymatic markers of liver function in obese males. Furthermore, resistance training with low intensity and higher frequency can be more beneficial.


  1. Andersen, T., C. Gluud, M.-B. Franzmann and P. Christoffersen (1991). "Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects." Journal of hepatology 12(2): 224-229.
  2. Anderson, F. H., L. Zeng, N. R. Rock and E. M. Yoshida (2000). "An assessment of the clinical utility of serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C." Hepatology Research 18(1): 63-71.
  3. Angulo, P. (2002). "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease." New England Journal of Medicine 346(16): 1221-1231.
  4. Aoi, W., E. Ichiishi, N. Sakamoto, A. Tsujimoto, H. Tokuda and T. Yoshikawa (2004). "Effect of exercise on hepatic gene expression in rats: a microarray analysis." Life sciences 75(26): 3117-3128.
  5. BABA, C. S., G. ALEXANDER, B. KALYANI, R. PANDEY, S. RASTOGI, A. PANDEY and G. CHOUDHURI (2006). "Effect of exercise and dietary modification on serum aminotransferase levels in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis." Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology 21(1): 191-198.
  6. Bacchi, E., C. Negri, G. Targher, N. Faccioli, M. Lanza, G. Zoppini, E. Zanolin, F. Schena, E. Bonora and P. Moghetti (2013). "Both resistance training and aerobic training reduce hepatic fat content in type 2 diabetic subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (the RAED2 Randomized Trial)." Hepatology 58(4): 1287-1295.
  7. Campbell, W. W., M. C. Crim, V. R. Young and W. J. Evans (1994). "Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults." The American journal of clinical nutrition 60(2): 167-175.
  8. Cho, N. H., H. C. Jang, S. H. Choi, H. R. Kim, H. K. Lee, J. C. Chan and S. Lim (2007). "Abnormal Liver Function Test Predicts Type 2 Diabetes A community-based prospective study." Diabetes Care 30(10): 2566-2568.
  9. Corey, K. E. and L. M. Kaplan (2014). "Obesity and liver disease: the epidemic of the twenty-first century." Clinics in liver disease 18(1): 1-18.
  10. Damor, K., K. Mittal, A. S. Bhalla, R. Sood, R. M. Pandey, R. Guleria, K. Luthra and N. K. Vikram (2014). "Effect of progressive resistance exercise training on hepatic fat in Asian Indians with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease." British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research 4(1): 114-124.
  11. De Piano, A., M. T. de Mello, P. d. L. Sanches, P. L. da Silva, R. M. Campos, J. Carnier, F. Corgosinho, D. Foschini, D. L. Masquio and L. Tock (2012). "Long-term effects of aerobic plus resistance training on the adipokines and neuropeptides in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease obese adolescents." European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 24(11): 1313-1324.
  12. Dill, D. and D. L. Costill (1974). "Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration." Journal of Applied Physiology 37(2): 247-248.
  13. Driskell, J. A. and I. Wolinsky (2010). Nutritional assessment of athletes, CRC Press.
  14. Evans, W. J. (2001). "Protein nutrition and resistance exercise." Canadian journal of applied physiology 26(S1): S141-S152.
  15. Frajacomo, F. T. T., M. M. P. Demarzo, C. R. Fernandes, F. Martinello, J. A. Bachur, S. A. Uyemura, S. E. d. A. Perez and S. B. Garcia (2012). "The effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on the blood lipid profile and liver function in hypercholesterolemic hamsters." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 37(3): 448-454.
  16. Garber, C. E., B. Blissmer, M. R. Deschenes, B. Franklin, M. J. Lamonte, I.-M. Lee, D. C. Nieman and D. P. Swain (2011). "American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 43(7): 1334-1359.
  17. Gasteyger, C., T. M. Larsen, F. Vercruysse and A. Astrup (2008). "Effect of a dietary-induced weight loss on liver enzymes in obese subjects." The American journal of clinical nutrition 87(5): 1141-1147.
  18. Gholami, N., Y. Salekzamani, M. Zareh Nahandi, S. Sokhtehzari, A. H. Monazami and M. Rostami Nejad (2013). "The effect of aerobic exercise on serum level of liver enzymes and liver echogenicity in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease." Gastroenterology and Hepatology from bed to bench 6.
  19. Hallsworth, K., G. Fattakhova, K. G. Hollingsworth, C. Thoma, S. Moore, R. Taylor, C. P. Day and M. I. Trenell (2011). "Resistance exercise reduces liver fat and its mediators in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of weight loss." Gut.
  20. Heyward, V. H. and A. Gibson (2014). Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription 7th Edition, Human kinetics.
  21. J, L., S. RJ, B. NG, W. GA, P. h. D, F. MS, R. RD, T. H, C. D, P. P, J. A, K. F and K. GP (2010). "Effect of exercise training on physical fitness in type II diabetes mellitus." Med Sci Sports Exerc 210: 42(8): 1439-1447.
  22. Johnson, N. A., T. Sachinwalla, D. W. Walton, K. Smith, A. Armstrong, M. W. Thompson and J. George (2009). "Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss." Hepatology 50(4): 1105-1112.
  23. Leon, A. S. and O. A. Sanchez (2001). "Response of blood lipids to exercise training alone or combined with dietary intervention."Medicine and science in sports and exercise 33(6 Suppl): S502-515; discussion S528-509.
  24. Limdi, J. and G. Hyde (2003). "Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests." Postgraduate medical journal 79(932): 307-312.
  25. Marchesini, G., S. Moscatiello, S. Di Domizio and G. Forlani (2008). "Obesity-associated liver disease." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 93(11_supplement_1): s74-s80.
  26. Mofrad, P., M. J. Contos, M. Haque, C. Sargeant, R. A. Fisher, V. A. Luketic, R. K. Sterling, M. L. Shiffman, R. T. Stravitz and A. J. Sanyal (2003). "Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values." Hepatology 37(6): 1286-1292.
  27. Okita, M., M. Hayashi, T. Sasagawa, K. Takagi, K. Suzuki, S. Kinoyama, T. Ito and G. Yamada (2001). "Effect of a moderately energy-restricted diet on obese patients with fatty liver." Nutrition 17(7): 542-547.
  28. OSHAKBAYEV, K., A. NERSESOV, E. IZATULLAYEV, J. KAYBULLAYEVA, M. NUGMANOVA and B. ILYASSOVA (2011). "Correlation between body fat mass and non alcoholic fatty liver disease " Medical and Health Science Journal 6: 60-67.
  29. Palmer, M. and F. Schaffner (1990). "Effect of weight reduction on hepatic abnormalities in overweight patients." Gastroenterology 99(5): 1408-1413.
  30. Porter CReidy PTBhattarai NSidossis LSRasmussen BB(2014). Resistance Exercise Training Alters Mitochondrial Function in Human Skeletal. Muscle.Med Sci Sports Exerc.
  31. Rantala, A., M. Lilja, H. Kauma, M. Savolainen, A. Reunanen and Y. Kesäniemi (2000). "Gamma‐glutamyl transpeptidase and the metabolic syndrome." Journal of internal medicine 248(3): 230-238.
  32. Slentz, C. A., L. A. Bateman, L. H. Willis, A. T. Shields, C. J. Tanner, L. W. Piner, V. H. Hawk, M. J. Muehlbauer, G. P. Samsa and R. C. Nelson (2011). "Effects of aerobic vs. resistance training on visceral and liver fat stores, liver enzymes, and insulin resistance by HOMA in overweight adults from STRRIDE AT/RT." American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 301(5): E1033-E1039.
  33. Strasser, B. and W. Schobersberger (2010). "Evidence for resistance training as a treatment therapy in obesity." Journal of obesity 2011.
  34. Treuth, M. S., G. R. Hunter, R. L. Weinsier and S. H. Kell (1995). "Energy expenditure and substrate utilization in older women after strength training: 24-h calorimeter results." Journal of Applied Physiology 78(6): 2140-2146.
  35. Ueno, T., H. Sugawara, K. Sujaku, O. Hashimoto, R. Tsuji, S. Tamaki, T. Torimura, S. Inuzuka, M. Sata and K. Tanikawa (1997). "Therapeutic effects of restricted diet and exercise in obese patients with fatty liver." Journal of hepatology 27(1): 103-107.
  36. Zelber‐Sagi, S., D. Nitzan‐Kaluski, R. Goldsmith, M. Webb, I. Zvibel, I. Goldiner, L. Blendis, Z. Halpern and R. Oren (2008). "Role of leisure‐time physical activity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A population‐based study." Hepatology 48(6): 1791-1798.