Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


Department of Sport Sciences, University of Bojnourd, Bojnourd, Iran


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different doses of caffeine on cortisol and some immune factors response to exhaustive exercise in inactive women. For this purpose, 12 overweight inactive women were selected. This study was conducted in 4 stages with an observance of subjects' menopause. In the first stage, the participants consumed placebo and conducted Bruce exhaustive test after 30 minutes. In the second, third and fourth stage, they consumed 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg caffeine in the form of capsules and conducted Bruce exhaustive test after 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected immediately after Bruce test. For data analysis, repeated measures test was carried out at a significance level P<0.05. The results showed that cortisol levels were significantly higher in the third and fourth stages (medium and higher doses) than the first stage (P = 0.007 and 0.002 respectively). Leukocyte levels were significantly lower in the second and third stages (low and medium doses) than the first stage (P = 0.036 and 0.017 respectively). Lymphocyte levels were significantly higher in the third stage (moderate dose) than the first stage (P=0.025). Monocytes levels were significantly higher in the fourth stage (high dose) than the first stage (P=0.023). So, it seems that medium and high doses of caffeine (6 and 9 mg/kg) could have positive and beneficial effects on the immune system due to exhaustive exercise.


  1. پایه‌دار، سید مجتبی؛ حق‌شناس، روح‌الله؛ کردی، محمدرضا؛ گائینی، عباسعلی (1390). تأثیر شانزده هفته تمرین استقامتی بر پروتئین وابسته به اگوتی (AGRP) پلاسمای رت‌های نر ویستار، ششمین همایش ملی دانشجویان تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی ایران، پژوهشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران.
  2. توفیقی، اصغر؛ جمالی قراخانلو، بهرام؛ آمقانی، اکرم؛ ذوالفقاری، محمدرضا (1390). «اثر مکمل کافئین بر پاسخ برخی شاخص‌های ایمنی و استرسی مردان غیرفعال به دنبال یک جلسه هوازی وامانده‌ساز»، مجلۀ پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز، 33(5)، ص 32-28.
  3. جمالی قراخانلو، بهرام؛ آمقانی، اکرم؛ توفیقی، اصغر؛ جمالی، علی؛ شیری، محمدرضا (1391). «تأثیر مصرف کافئین تک‌مرحله‌ای کافئین بر غلظت سرمی کورتیزول، HSP72 و تعداد گویچه‌های سفید خون در مردان ورزشکار»، فصلنامۀ علمی- پژوهشی علوم تغذیه و صنایع غذایی ایران. 7(3)، ص 50-43.
  4. دیناروند، احسان؛ بهپور، ناصر؛ همت‌فر، احمد (1392). «اثر مصرف کافئین پس از یک دوره بارگیری کراتینی بر استقامت عضلانی و سطوح کورتیزول و کاتکولامین مردان ورزشکار»، فصلنامۀ پزشکی ورزشی و آمادگی جسمانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خوراسگان، 1، ص 62-47.
  5. رمضانی، فریبرز (1374). «نقش ورزش در تقویت یا تضعیف سیستم دفاعی بدن»، مجلۀ ورزش و ارزش، ش 115.
  6. هنری، جان برناد (1377). ایمونولوژی و ایمونوپاتولوژی دیویدسون، ترجمۀ پروین رجبی و همکاران، اصفهان: انتشارات دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان.


  1. Astorino, TA., Roberson, DW. (2010). “Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term highintensity exercise performance: a systematic review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2(24), 257-68.
  2. Bassini C, Sweet E, Bottino A, Bittar C, Veiga C, Cameron L. (2007). “Effect of caffeine supplementation on hematological and biochemical variables in elite soccer players under physical stress conditions. Br J Sports Med. 41:523-30.
  3.  Boyd SR, Advani A, Altomare F, Stockl F. (2013). "Retinopathy". Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 37, S137–S141.
  4. Campisi, J.; Fleshner, M. (2003). “Role of extracellular HSP72 in acute stress-induced potentiation of innate immunity in active rats”. J of appl phy. 94:43-52.
  5. Coombes JS, McNaughton LR. (2000). Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase after prolonged exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 40(3), 240-6.
  6. Damirchi, A., Rahmani-Nia, F., Mirzaie, B., Hasan-Nia, S., Ebrahimi, M. (2009). “Effect of caffeine on metabolic and cardiovascular responses to sub maximal exercise in lean and obese men”. Biomedical Human Kinetics. 1: 31-35.
  7. Fletcher, D., Bishop, N. (2010). “Caffeine ingestion and antigen-stimulated human lymphocyte activation after prolonged cycling. Scandinavian” Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 4(5), 48-55.
  8. Fredholm BB, Battig K, Holmen J, Nehlig A, Zvartau EE. (1999). Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacol Rev. 51,83-133.
  9. Hamedinia M, Askari R. (2005). “Influence of physical fitness training on some immune system markers in athletic students”. Journal of Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences. 123(37): 22-27.
  10. Horne B.D, Anderson J.L, John J.M, Weaver A, Bair T.L, Jensen K.R, et al. (2005). “Which white blood cell subtypes predict increased cardiovascular risk?”. J Am Coll Cardiol. 45, 1638-43.
  11. Jamurtas AZ, Theocharis V, Tofas T, Tsiokanos A, et al. (2005). Comparison between leg and arm eccentric exercises of the same relative intensity on indices of muscle damage. Eur J Appl Physiol. 95(2-3), 179-185.
  12. Karcz-Kubicha M, Antoniou K, Terasmaa A, Quarta D, Solinas M, Justinova Z. (2003).” Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors in the motor effects of caffeine after its acute and chronic administration”. Neuropsychopharmacology. 28, 1281.1291.
  13. Lee C.L., Lin J.C., Cheng C.F. (2011). “Effect of caffeine ingestion after creatine supplementation on intermittent high-intensity sprint performance”. Eur J Appl Physiol. Aug. 111(8), 1669-77.
  14. Lovallo WR, Al.Absi M, Blick K, Whitsett TL, Wilson MF. (1996). “Stress-like adrenocorticotropin responses to caffeine in young healthy men”. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 55: 365.369.
  15. Machado M, Vigo JFF, Breder A, Simoes J, Ximenes M, Hackney A. (2009). “Effect of short term caffeine supplementation and intermittent exercise on muscle damage markers”. J of Biology of sport.26, 3-11.
  16. Melanie H, Mario IK, Meaney S, Isidro I.M. (2009). "Relationship between children's motor abilities and BMI, A preliminary investigation". Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 31,20-25.
  17. Nammi S, Koka S., Chinnala KM, Boini KM. (2004). “Obesity; An overview of its current perspectives and treatment options”. Nutr J. 3: 3.
  18. Natália S, Vimercatti, Paulo V. (2008). “Two doses of caffeine do not increase the risk of exercise-induced muscledamage or leukocytosis”. Physical Education and Sport. 52, 96 - 99.
  19. Nemet D.P, Mills J. Gooper D.M. (2004). "Effect of intense wrestling exercise on leukocytes and adhesion molecules in adolescent boys". Br Sports Med. 38, 154-58.
  20. Olkina N, Guillermo J. (2006). “Effect of caffeine on oxidative stress during maximum incremental exercise”. J of Sport Science and Med.5, 621-628.
  21. Pedersen BK, Toft AD. (2000). Effect of exercise on lymphocyte and cytokines. Br. J Sports Med. 34(4), 246-251.
  22. Peker I, Gören Z, Çiloglu F, Karacabey K, Ozmerdivenli R, Saygın Ö. (2005). “Effects of caffeine on exercise performance, lactate, FFA., triglycerides, prolactin, cortisol and amylase in maximal aerobic exercise”. Biotechnol & Biotechnol Eq. 16(2), 1310-2818.
  23. Pizza FX, Mitchell JB, Davis BH, Starling RD, et al. (1995). Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage - Effect on Circulating Leukocyte and Lymphocyte Subsets. Med Sci Sport Exer. 27(3), 363-370.
  24. Smith LL, Anwer A, Fragen M. (2000). “Cytokines and Cell adhesion molecules associated with high-intensity eccentric exercise”. Eur J Appl Physiol. 82: 61-67.
  25. Smith, AP. (2009). “Caffeine, cognitive failures and health in a non-working community sample”. Hum Psychopharmacol. 24: 29–34.
  26. Steensberg A, Fischer CP, Sacchetti M. (2003). “Acute interleukin-6 administration does not impair muscle glucose uptake or whole-body glucose disposal in healthy humans”. The Journal of Physiology. 548 (2):631–8.
  27. Vandenberghe, K.,Gillis, N.;Van Leemputte, M.;Van Hecke, P.; Vanstapel, F.; Hespel P. (1996). “Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading”. J Appl Physiol. 80(2):452-7.
  28. Vimercatti NS, Zovico PVC, Carvalho AS, Barreto JG, Machado M. (2008). “Two doses of caffeine do not increase the risk of exercise-induced muscle damage or leukocytosis”. PESS. 52(-1), 96-9.

35. Whitham, M., Walker, G., Bishop, N. (2007). “Effect of caffeine supplementation on the extracellular heat shock protein72 response to exercise”. J Appl Physio. 101: 1222-1227.

  1. Woolf, K.; Bidwell, WK.; Carlson, A.G. (2008). “The effect of caffeine as an ergogenic aid in anaerobic exercise”. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Aug. 18(4):412-29.