The Effect of Endurance and Resistance Training on Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Overweight Young Women

Document Type : Research Paper



The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of endurance and resistance training on some inflammatory cytokines in overweight young women. 30 overweight young women (BMI≥25) were selected and randomly divided into three groups: endurance, resistance and control. The training groups practiced for 12 weeks and 3 sessions a week. The endurance training was designed by intensity of 60-75% of the target heart rate covering a distance from 1600 to 3200 meters, and the resistance training was designed from 50-60% of one maximum repetition with 12 repetitions and 4 sets. IL-6, TNF- α, body weight, fat percentage, BMI and the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) were measured before and after 12 weeks of training. The results showed that the endurance and resistance training had a significant effect on the body weight, body fat percentage, VO2max, IL-6 and TNF-α, except for BMI (P≤0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference between the effect of the resistance and endurance training. It seems that endurance and resistance training decrease the risk of non-infectious diseases in overweight young women with a significant decrease in the inflammatory cytokines. 



    1. Adamopoulos S, Parissis J, Kroupis C, Georgiadis M, Karatzas D, Karavolias G, et al. (2001). "Physical training reduces peripheral markers of inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure". Eur Heart J., Vol. 22, No. 9, PP: 791-797.
    2. Beavers KM, Brinkley TE, Nicklas BJ. (2010). "Effect of exercise training on chronic inflammation". Clinica Chimica Acta., Vol. 3; 411, No. 11-12, PP: 785- 793.
    3. Bruunsgaard H, Bjerregaard E, Schroll M, Pedersen BK. (2004). "Muscle strength after resistance training is inversely correlated with baseline levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in oldest old". J Am Geriatr Soc., Vol. 52, No. 2, pp: 237- 241.
    4. Bruunsgaard H, Galbo H. Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Johansen TL, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. (1997). "Exercise-induced increase in serum interleukin-6 in humans is related to muscle damage". J Physiol., Vol. 499, No. 3, pp: 833-841.
    5. Bruunsgaard H. (2005). "Physical activity and modulation of systemic low-level inflammation". J Leukoc Biol., Vol. 78, No. 4, pp: 819- 835.
    6. Carrel AL, McVean JJ, Clark RR, Peterson SE, Eickhoff JC, Allen DB. (2009). "School-based exercise improves fitness, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and markers of inflammation in non-obese children". J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab., Vol. 22, No. 5, pp: 409-15.
    7. Castaneda C, Gordon P, Parker R, Uhlin K, Roubenoff R, Levey A. (2004). "Resistance training to reduce malnutritioninflammation complex syndrome of chronic kidney disease". Am J Kidney Dis., Vol. 43, No. 4, pp: 607-616.
    8. Charles P. Lambert, Nicole R. Wright, Brian N. Finck, and Dennis T. Villareal. (2008): "Exercise but not diet-induced weight loss decreases skeletal muscle inflammatory gene expression in frail obese elderly persons". J Appl Physiol., Vol. 105, No. 2, pp: 473–478.
    9. Church TS, Barlow CE, Earnest CP, Kampert JB, Priest EL, Blain SN. (2002). "Associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and C-reactive protein in men". Arteriosclerosis Vascular Biology., Vol. 22, No. 12, pp: 1869-1876.
    10. Conraads VM, Beckers P, Bosmans J, De Clerck LS, Stevens WJ, Vrints CJ, Brutsaert DL. (2002). "Combined endurance/resistance training reduces plasma TNF-α receptor levels in patients with chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease". Eur Heart J., Vol. 23, No. 23, pp: 1854-1860.
    11. Cooper, K.H. (1968). "A means of assessing maximal oxygen intake". JAMA. Vol. 203, No. 3, pp. 135-138
    12. Cupps TR, Fauci AS. (1982). "Corticosteroid-induced immunoregulation in man". Immunol Rev., Vol. 65, pp: 133-155.
    13. Daar A, Singer A, Persad D, Pramming S, Matthews D, Beaglehole R, et al. (2007). "Grand challenges in chronic non-communicable diseases". Nature, Vol. 450, No. 7169, PP: 494–496.
    14. Fischer CP. (2006). "Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance"? Exerc Immunol Rev., Vol. 12, pp: 6-33.
    15. Foster – Schubert KE, McTiernan A, Frayo RS, Schwartz RS, Rajan KB, Yasui Y, et al. (2005). "Human plasma ghrelin levels increase during a one – year exercise program". J clin Endocrinol Metab., Vol. 90, No. 2, pp: 820–825.
    16.  Gielen S, Adams V, Mobius-Winkler S, Linke A, Erbs S, Yu J, et al. (2003). "Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with chronic heart failure". J Am Coll Cardiol, Vol. 42, No. 5, PP: 861-868.
    17. Gleeson M. (2006). "Immune function in sport and exercise". Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2006.
    18. Gokhale R, Chandrashekara S, Vasanthakumar KC. (2007). "Cytokine response to strenuous exercise in athletes and non-athletes-an adaptive response". Cytokine., Vol. 40, No. 2, pp: 123-7.
    19. Goldhammer E, Tanchilevitch A, Maor I, Beniamini Y, Rosenschein U and Sagiv M. (2005): "Exercise training modulates cytokines activity in coronary heart disease patients". Int J Cardiol., Vol. 100, No. 1, pp: 93- 99.
    20. Haghighi AH, Ravasi AA.,Gaeini AA, Aminian-Razavi TD,Hamedinia MR. (2006). "The effect of resistance training on pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in obese men". Olympic., Vol. 14, No. 2, pp:19-29. [Persian]
    21. Huffman KM, Slentz CA, Bales CW, Houmard JA, Kraus WE. (2008). "Relationship between adipose tissue and cytokine responses to a randomized controlled exercise training intervention". Metabolism Clinical Experimental., Vol. 57, No. 4, pp: 577-583.
    22. Jung SH, Parkb SH, Kimc KS, Woong H, Choi D, Ahne CW et al. (2008). "Effect of weight loss on some serum cytokines in human obesity: increase in IL-10 after weight loss". J Nutr Biochem., Vol. 19, No. 6, pp: 371–375.
    23. Kadoglou NP, Iliadis F, Angelopoulou N, Perrea D, Ampatzidis G, Liapis CD, Alevizos M. (2007). "The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus". Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil., Vol. 14, No. 6, pp: 837-843.
    24. Kadoglou NP, Iliadis F, Sailer N, Athanasiadou Z, Vitta J, Kapelouzou A et al. (2010). "Exercise training ameliorates the effects of rosiglitazone on traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus". Metab Clin Exper., Vol. 59, No. 4, pp: 599 –607.
    25. Khalighfard S, Gaeini A, Nazarali P. (2001). "The effect of endurance exercise on cardiac stress and exercise induced immune response in elite kayakers". Razi Journal of Medical Sciences., Vol. 17, No. 80 & 81, pp: 8- 15. [Persian]
    26. Kohut ML, McCann DA, Russell DW, Konopka DN, Cunnick JE, Franke WD et al. (2006). "Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL-18, CRP and IL-6 independent of beta-blockers, BMI and psychosocial factors in older adults". Brain Behav Immun., Vol. 20, No. 3, pp: 201-209.
    27. Larsen AI, Aukrust P, Aarsland T, Dicksein K. (2001). "Effect of aerobic exercise training on plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α in patients with heart failure". Am J Cardiol, Vol. 88 No. 7, PP: 805- 808.
    28. Libardi CA, De Souza GV, Cavaglieri CR, Madruga GV, Chacon-Mikahil MPT. (2012). "Effect of resistance, endurance, and concurrent training on TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP". Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp:50-56.
    29. Mathur N and Pedersen BK. (2008). "Exercise as a mean to control low-grade systemic inflammation". Mediators of inflammation., Vol. 2008, 109502. Review.
    30. Mattusch F, Dufaux B, HeineO, Mertens I, Rost R. (2000). "Reduction of the plasma concenteration of C-reactive protein following nine months of endurance training". Int J sports Med., Vol. 21, No. 1, pp: 21-24.
    31. Mohamadi HR, Taghian F, Khoshnam MS, Rafatifar M, Sabagh M. (2011). "The effect of acute physical exercise on serum IL-6 and CRP levels in healthy non- athlete adolescent"s. J Jahrom University of medical sciences., Vol. 9, No. 2, pp: 27- 33. [Persian]
    32. Moldoveanu AI, Shephard RJ, Shek PN. (2000). "Exercise elevates plasma levels but not gene expression of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in blood mononuclear cells". J Appl Physiol., Vol. 89, No. 4, pp:1499-1504.
    33. Mosaferi-Ziaaedini M, Ebrahin KH, Amani D, Arabnarmi Z. (2012). "Effect of supplementary consumption of coenzyme Q10 on TNF-á serum levels during maximal training". J Ardabil Univ Med Sci, Vol. 12, No. 3, PP: 303-311. [Persian]
    34. Nicklas BJ, Ambrosius W, Messier SP, Miller GD, Penninx BW, Loeser RF, Palla S, Bleecker E, Pahor M. (2004). "Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults": a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr., Vol. 79, No. 4, pp: 544- 55.
    35. Ogawa K, Sanada K, Machida S, Okutsu M, Suzuki K. (2010). "Resistance Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy Was Associated with Reduction of Inflammatory Markers in Elderly Women". Mediators Inflamm., Vol. 2010, 171023.
    36. Pasare C. and Medzhitov R. (2003). "Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell- mediated suppression by dendritic cells". Science., Vol. 299, No. 5609, PP: 1033-1036.
    37. Pedersen M, Bruunsgaard H, Weis N, Hendel HW, Andreassen BU, Eldrup E, et al. (2003). "Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes". Mech Ageing De., Vol. 124, pp: 495–502.
    38. Pedersen BK. (2006). "The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise: its role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease control". Essays in Biochemistry., Vol. 42, PP: 105- 117.
    39. Pedersen B. (2011). "Muscles and their myokines". J Exp Biol., Vol. 15, No. 2, PP: 337-346.
    40. Petersen AM and Pedersen BK. (2005). "The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise". J Appl Physiol., Vol. 98, No. 4, PP: 1154-1162.
    41. Petersen AM, Plomgaard P, Fischer CP, Ibfelt T, Pedersen BK, Van Hall G. (2009). "Acute moderate elevation of TNF-α does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover in healthy humans". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism., Vol. 94, No.1, PP: 294–9.
    42. Phillips MD, Flynn MG, Mc farlin BK, Stewart LK, Timmerman KL. (2009). "Resistance training at eight – repetition maximum reduce the inflammatory milieu in elderly women". Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 2, pp: 314-325.
    43. Pinto A1, Di Raimondo D, Tuttolomondo A, Buttà C, Milio G, Licata G. (2012). "Effects of physical exercise on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis". Curr Pharm Des. Vol. 18, No. 28, pp: 4326-49.
    44. Prestes J, Shiguemoto G, Botero JP, Frollini A, Dias R, Leite R, et al. (2009). "Effects of resistance training on resistin, leptin, cytokines, and muscle force in elderly post-menopausal women". Sports Sci., Vol. 27, No. 14, pp: 1607-15.
    45. Rall LC, Roubenoff R, Meydani SN, Han SN, Meydani M. (2000). "Urinary 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis and aging: effect of progressive resistance training". J Nutr Biochem., Vol. 11, No. 11-12, pp:581-584.
    46. Radom-Aizik S1, Leu SY, Cooper DM, Zaldivar F Jr. (2007). "Serum from exercising humans suppresses t-cell cytokine production". Cytokine., Vol. 40, No. 2, pp: 75-81.
    47. Scott JPR, Sale C, Greeves JP, Casy A, Dutton J, Fraser WD. (2011). "Effect of Exercise Intensity on the Cytokine Response to an Acute Bout of Running". Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 43, No. 12, pp: 2297-2306.
    48. Starkie RL, Angus DJ, Rolland J, Hargreaves M, Febbraio MA. (2000). "Effect of prolonged, submaximal exercise and carbohydrate ingestion on monocyte intracellular cytokine production in humans". J Physiol., Vol. 528, No. 3, pp: 647-655.
    49. Steensberg A, van Hall G, Osada T, Sacchetti M, Saltin B and Pedersen BK. (2000). "Production of IL-6 in contracting human skeletal muscles can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma IL-6". J Physiol., Vol. 529, No. 1, pp: 237-242.
    50. Steensberg A, Febbraio MA, Osada T, Schjerling P, van Hall G, Saltin B, Pedersen BK. "Interleukin-6 production in contracting human skeletal muscle is influenced by pre-exercise muscle glycogen content". J Physiol., Vol. 537, No. 2, pp: 633-9.
    51. Timmons BW1, Tarnopolsky MA, Bar-Or O. (2004). "Immune responses to strenuous exercise and carbohydrate intake in boys and men". Pediatr Res., Vol. 56, No. 2, pp: 227-34.
    52. Turnbull AV, Rivier CL. (1999). "Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adernal axis by cytokines: actions and mechanism of actions". Physiol Rev., Vol. 79, No. 1, pp: 1-71.
    53. Volpato S, Pahor M, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Guralnik JM, Kritchevsky SB, Fellin R, Harris TB. (2004). "Relationship of alcohol intake with inflammatory markers and plasminogen activator inhibitor in well-functioning older adults: the health, aging, and body composition study". Circulation. Vol. 109, No. 5, pp: 607- 612.
    54. Weiss ST. (2005). "Obesity: insight into the origins of asthma". Nat Immunol., Vol. 6, No. 6, PP: 537-9.