Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license



Concurrent increase in strength and endurance is one of the main factors of reaching the peak performance in paddlers. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 8 weeks of resistance-paddling training and paddling training on some physiological characteristics and performance of paddlers. 16 female dragon boat paddlers were selected purposively and divided to resistance-paddling training group (n=9) and paddling training group (n=7). Resistance-paddling group participated in padding training along with resistance training for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, each session 90-120 min. The paddling group performed paddling training at the same time. Upper body anaerobic power, VO2max, hand grip strength, 1-RM of bench press and paddling and 500-meter paddling performance were measured before and after 8 weeks of training. ANCOVA was used to compare changes between the two groups and the significance level was 0.05. The results showed a significant increase in upper body anaerobic power and VO2max (40% and 23% respectively) in resistance-paddling training group which was significant compared with the control group (P=0.001). Hand grip strength did not change significantly in resistance-paddling group compared with the control group (P=0.1). 1-RM of bench press and paddling increased (36% and 16% respectively) in resistance-paddling group. The time of 500-m paddling performance significantly improved in resistance-paddling group (17.5%) compared with the paddling group (P=0.02). It seems that resistance-paddling training can improve performance through increased aerobic power, anaerobic power and paddlers' strength.


  1. 1.Arazi, H., Faraji, H., Ghahremani, M., Samadi, A. (2011)."Effects of concurrent exercise protocols on strength, aerobic power flexibility and body composition". Kinesiology., No.432, PP:155-162.

 2.Baudouin, A., Hawkins, D. (2002). “A biomechanical review of factors affecting rowing performance”. Br J Sports Med., No.36, PP:396–402.

 3.Bishop, D. (2000). “Physiological predictors of flat-water kayak performance in women”. Eur J Appl Physiol., Vol. 82, No.1, PP: 91-5.

 4.Bourgois, J. (2001). “Anthropometric characteristics of elite female junior Rowers”. Journal of Sports Sciences., No.19, PP:195 – 202.

 5.Chtara, M., Chamari, K., Chaouachi, M., Chaouachi, A., Koubaa, D., Feki, Y., et al. (2005). "Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity". Br J Sports Med., No.39, PP:555–560.

6.Chtara, M., Chaouachi, A., Levin, G., Chaouachi, M., Chamari, K., Laursen, P. B., et al. (2008). "Effect of concurrent endurance and circuit Resistance training sequence on muscular Strength and power development".  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research., Vol. 22, No.4, PP:1037–1045.

 7.Ferrauti, A., Bergermann, M., Fernandez, J. (2010). "Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners". J Strength Cond Res., Vol. 24, No.10, PP:2770-8.

 8.Forbes, S.C., Fuller, D.L., Krentz, J.R., Little, J.P., Chilibeck, P.D. (2009). “Anthropometric and Physiological Predictors of Flat-water 1000 m Kayak Performance in Young Adolescents and the Effectiveness of a High Volume Training Camp”.  Int J Exerc Sci., Vol. 2, No.2, PP:106-114.

 9.Gallagher, D., DiPietro, L., Visek, A.J., Bancheri, J.M., Miller,T.A. (2010). “The effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on 2,000-m rowing ergometer times in collegiate male rowers”. J StrengthCond Res., Vol.24, No.5, PP:1208–1214.

 10.García-Pallarés, J., Sánchez-Medina, L., Carrasco, L., Díaz, A., Izquierdo, M. (2009)." Endurance and neuromuscular changes in world-class level kayakers during a periodized training cycle". Eur J Appl Physiol., No.106, PP:629–638.

 11.Garcı´a-Pallares, J., Garcıa-Fernandez, M., Sanchez-Medina, L., Izquierdo, M.. (2010)." Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models". Eur J Appl Physiol., No.110, PP: 99–107.

12.García-Pallarés, J., Izquierdo, M. (2011). "Strategies to optimize concurrent training of strength and aerobic fitness for rowing and canoeing". Sports Med., Vol. 41, No.4, PP:329-43.

 13.Hakkinen, K. (2003). “Neuromuscular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training versus strength training”. Eur J Appl Physiol., No.89, PP: 42–52.

 14.Ho, S.R., Smith, R., OMeara, D. (2009). “Biomechanical analysis of dragon boat paddling: a comparison of elite and sub-elite paddlers”. J Sports Sci., Vol. 27, No.1, PP: 37-47.

 15.Ho, S.R., Smith, R.M., Chapman, P.G., Sinclair, P.J., Funato, K. (2013)." Physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers". J Strength Cond Res., Vol. 27, No.1, PP: 137-45.

 16.Izquierdo-Gabarren, M.,  Txabarri, E. R., García-pallarés, J., Sánchez-medina, L., Villarreal, E.S., Izquierdo, M. (2010)." Concurrent Endurance and Strength Training Not to Failure Optimizes Performance Gains". Med Sci Sports Exerc. Vol. 42, No.6, PP:1191–1199.

 17.Kokalas, N., Tsalis, G., Tsigilis, N., Mougios, V. (2004). “Hormonal responses to three training protocols in rowing”. Eur J Appl Physiol., No.92, PP: 128–132.

 18.Kraemer, W.J. (2001). “Effect of resistance training on women's strength/ power and occupational performances”. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No.6, PP: 1011-25.

 19.Lawton, T.W., Cronin, J.B., McGuigan, M.R. (2012). “Does on-water resisted rowing increase or maintains lower body strength?” J Strength Cond Res., No.19, PP: 13-17.

 20.Lawton, T.W., Cronin, J.B., McGuigan, M.R. (2011). “Strength testing and training of rowers: a review”. Sports Med. Vol. 41, No.5, PP:413-32.

 21.Liow, D.K., Hopkins, W.G. (2003). “Velocity specificity of weight training for kayak sprint performance”. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No.7, PP: 1232-7.

22.McKean, M. R., Brendan, B. (2010) "The relationship between joint range of motion, muscular strength, and race time for sub-elite flat water kayakers".Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport., No.13, PP: 537–542.

 23.Mikkola, J.S., Rusko, H.K., Nummela, A.T., Paavolainen, L.M., Häkkinen, K. (2007). “Concurrent endurance and explosive type strength training increases activation and fast force production of leg extensor muscles in endurance athletes”. J Strength Cond Res., Vol. 21, No.2, PP:613-20.

 24.Nader, G.A. (2006). “Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training: From Molecules to Man”. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Vol. 38, No.11, PP: 1965–1972.

 25.Nelson, A.G. (1990)." Consequences of Combining Strength and Endurance Training Regimens". Physical Therapy., Vol. 70, No.5, PP: 25-32.

 26.Nilsson, N. "Muscle Explosion, 28 Days to Maximum Mass".2008; Price world publishing

 27.Rabindarjeet, S. (1995). “Physical and physiological profiles of Malaysian dragon boat rowers”. Br J Sp Med., Vol. 29, No.1, PP: 13-15.

 28.Secher, N.H. (1975). "Isometric rowing strength of experienced and inexperienced oarsmen". Med Sci Sports., No.4, PP:280-3.

 29.Smith, B., Hopkins, W.G. (2012). "Measures of Rowing Performance". Sports Med., Vol.42, No.4, PP: 343-358.

 30.Soper, C., Hume, P.A. (2004). “Towards an Ideal Rowing Technique for Performance: The Contributions from Biomechanics”. Sports Med., Vol. 34, No.12, PP: 825-848.

 31.Thomas, W. J., Glyn, H., Russell, M., Duncan, N.F. (2013). "Performance and neuromuscular adaptations Following differing ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training". Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research., Vol. 27, No.12, PP: 3342–3351.