A Comparison of the Acute Effects of Voluntary Contractions at Different Intensities and Times on Explosive Power, Sprint and Agility in Football Players

Document Type : Research Paper



This study aimed at comparing the acute effects of voluntary contractions (PAP) at different intensities and times on explosive power, sprint ​​and agility in football players. 13 subjects (mean age 17.7±0.63 years, weight 57.9±6.9 kg and height 167.9±5.4 cm) were selected as available sample. During 7 sessions, the protocols of warm-up without load, half-squat %45, %65, %85 1RM after 4 minutes and half-squat %45, %65, %85 1RM after 15 minutes were randomly administered for the variables of explosive power, sprint and agility, and 35-m sprint running, Sargent vertical jump and Illinois agility tests were performed. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA). The results showed no significant differences in explosive power with different intensities after 4 minutes in the PAP acute effect with P≤0.05 but there was a significant difference in explosive power with 65% and 85% intensities after 15 minutes compared with warm-up protocol. There was a significant difference in the sprint in PAP after 4 minutes of 65% and after 15 minutes of 65% and 85% intensities compared with warm-up protocol. There was a significant difference in the agility in PAP after 4 minutes of 65% and 85% and after 15 minutes of 65% intensity among the intensities. Generally, time has a more effective role in improving power and sprint activities of athletes at moderate and peak intensity and agility with moderate intensity in post-activation potentiation (voluntary contractions) acute effect especially after 15 minutes. 


1.باپیران، محسن. ( 1391 ). "اثر حاد و ویژگی پی شفعالی عضلانی بر حداکثر نیرو، سرعت پا و
عملکرد پرش عمودی در مردان تمرین کرده". پایان نامة کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی دانشگاه
تربیت معلم تهران.
2. براون، لی ای. ( 1391 )" برنامه ریزی تمرینات قدرتی" ترجمة عبدالرضا کاظمی و صادق امانی. چ
. اول، دانشگاه کرمان، ص 9
3. حیدری مقدم، رشید، ( 1392 ). "مقایسة منتخبی از متغیرهای فیزیولوژیکی و عملکردی بازیکنان تیم ملی
.156- فوتبال چمنی و ساحلی". نشریة دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایلام. دورة 21 . ش 1. ص 164
48 علوم زیستی ورزشی، دورة 8، شمارة 1، بهار 1395
4. شارکی، برایان. گسکیل، استیون. ( 1387 ). "فیزیولوژی ورزشی برای مربیان". ترجمة فرهاد
. رحمانی نیا، مریم بخشی. چ اول، تهران، بامداد کتاب، ص 74
5. عبدالملکی، عباس. ( 1391 ). "اثر نوع و شدت انقباضات ارادی بر برخی متغیرهای الکتروفیزیولوزیایی
.7 - پرش عمودی ورزشکاران دو و میدانی"، فصلنامة المپیک، ش 4 (پیاپی 60 ): ص 15
6. ویلمور، جک اچ. کاستیل، دیوید ال. ( 1388 )." فیزیولوژی ورزش و فعالیت های بدنی ( 1)"، ترجمة ضیاء
. معینی، فرهاد رحمانی نیا، حمید رجبی، حمید آقا عل ینژاد و فاطمه سلامی، چ ششم، تهران، مبتکران، ص 24
7. هادوی، فریده، ( 1387 ). "اندازه گیری و ارزشیابی در تربیت بدنی". چ چهارم، تهران، دانشگاه تربیت معلم، ص270-285

8. Avery D. Faigenbaum; James E. McFarland; Jeff A. Schwerdtman; Nicholas A.
Ratamess; Jie Kang; Jay R. Hoffman. (2006). “Dynamic Warm-Up Protocols, With and
Without a Weighted Vest, and Fitness Performance in High School Female Athletes”.
Journal of Athletic Training; 41(4): 357–363.
9. Baker, D. (2003). “Acute effect of alternating heavy and light resistances on power
output during upper-body complex power training”. Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research, 17(3), 493-497.
10. Behm DG, Button DC, Barbour G, et al. 2004. “Conflicting effects of fatigue and
potentiation on voluntary force”. J Strength Cond Res; 18 (2): 365–72.
11. Brzycki M. (1993). “Strength testing-predicting a one-rep max from reps to fatigue”. J
Physi Edu Recr Dance, 64: 88-90.
12. Chiu LZ, Fry AC, Weiss LW, et al. “Postactivation potentiation response in athletic and
recreationally trained individuals”. J Strength Cond Res 2003 Nov; 17 (4): 671–7.
13. Dale AL, James HM, Jerry LM, Ronald LW, Michael DA (1997). “The accuracy of
prediction equations for estimating 1-RM performance in the bench press, squat, and
deadlift”. Journal of strength and conditioning Research, 11: 211-213.
14. David M. Bazett -Jones. (2004). “Neither Stretching nor Post activation Potentiation
Affect Maximal Force and Rate of Force Production during Seven One-Minute Trials”. U.
w – l undergraduate research.
15. Donald T, Kirkendall. “Assessment of fitness for soccer A study of highly skilled youth
members team”. university Medical Center, 2002; 6:164-96.
16. Greig inglis, jon Howard, kyle macintosh, david A. gabriel and Rene Vandenboom.
(2006). “Post activation potentiation and decreased motor unit firing rate during
submaximal contraction of the tibial anterior”. brock university, st. cathariens, Ontario,
17. Hage El. R., Zakhem, E. E, Moussa, E. E., & Jacob, C. C. (2011). “Acute effects of heavyload
squats on consecutive vertical jump performance”. Science & Sports, 26(1), 44-47.
18. Hamada, T, Sale, D. G., MacDougall, J. D, & Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2003). “Interaction of
fibre type, potentiation and fatigue in human knee extensor muscles”. Act a Physiologic a
Scandinavica, 178(2), 165-173.
19. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A, Faigenbaum, A. D, Mangine G. T. & Kang, J.
(2007). “Effects of maximal squat exercise testing on vertical jump performance in
American college football players”. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6, 149-150.
20. Khamoui, Andy V; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Judelson, Daniel A; Uribe, Brandon
P; Nguyen, Diamond; Tran, Tai; Eurich, Alea D; Noffal, Guillermo J. 2009. “Effect of
Potentiating Exercise Volume on Vertical Jump Parameters in Recreationally Trained
Men”. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 23(5):1465-1469.
21. Kovacevic1, Erol, Armen, Klino1. Fuad, Babajic2. Asim, Bradić1.(2011). “Effect of
maximum isometric contraction on explosive power of lower limbs (jump performance)
”.1Faculty of sport and physical education, Sarajevo University, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sport SPA Vol.7, Issue 1: 69-75.
22. Palmieri, R .M. Ingersoll, C .D. & Hoffman, M .A. (2004). “The Hoffmann Reflex:
Methodologic considerations and applications for use in sports medicine and athletic
training research”. Journal of Athletic Training, 39(3), 268-277.
23. Rahimi, R, (2007). “The Acute Effects of Heavy versus Light- Load Squats on Sprint
Performance”, Physical Education and Sport, 5(2), 163-169.
24. Robbins, D. & Docherty, D. (2005). “Effect of loading on enhancement of power
performance over three consecutive trials”, Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research, 19(4), 898-902.
25. Tillin, Neale Anthony; Bishop, David; 2009. “Factors Modulating Post-Activation
Potentiation and its Effect on Performance of Subsequent” Sports Medicine; 39, 2; pg.
26. Young WB, Jenner A, Griffiths K. 1998. “Acute enhancement of power performance
from heavy load squats”. J Strength Cond Res; 12 (2): 82–4