Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Occupational Health Engineering, Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

4 PhD in Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of aerobic exercise in carbon black particulates air pollution on TLR4 and TNF-α gene expression in male rats. 24 male Wistar rats (mean body mass 279.29+26.97 gr) were randomly divided into 4 groups: A) control, B) aerobic exercise, C) pollution, D) exercise+pollution. A particulates injector and Falounak chamber were used to expose the rats to carbon black particulates with a diameter˂10 micron. Aerobic exercise protocol was performed in each group with 50% maximum speed for 4 weeks. The subjects were killed 24 hours after the last session and exposure to carbon black particulates. The gene expression of TLR4, and TNF-α were analyzed in the lung tissue by Real time – Pcr technique. In order to determine the significant differences among the groups, multiple ANOVA, LSD post hoc and non-parametric Friedman tests were used. Aerobic exercise reduced the gene expression of TLR4, and TNF-α in rats exposed to carbon black particulates. Also, the exercise significantly reduced body mass in those groups exposed to carbon black particulates. 4 weeks of aerobic exercise in carbon black particulates air pollution balanced inflammatory markers of TLR4, TNF-α and body mass. It seems that these changes are partly associated with a reduction in the risk of pulmonary diseases.


  1. منابع

    1. احدی، سولماز؛ نجفی، محمدعلی؛ روشنی، محسن (1391)، «گزارش سالانۀ کیفیت هوای تهران در سال 1390»، گزارش فنی شرکت کنترل کیفیت هوا، شمارۀ QM91/02/06(U)/.
      1. Alexandre G. Oliveira et al. Physical Exercise Reduces Circulating Lipopolysaccharide and TLR4 Activation and Improves Insulin Signaling in Tissues of DIO Rats. Diabetes March 2011 vol. 60 no. 3 784-796.
        1. Al-Hegelan M, Tighe RM, Castillo C, Hollingsworth JW. Ambient ozone and pulmonary innate immunity. Immunol Res. 2011; 49(1–3): 173–191.
        2. Allen RW, Mar T, Koenig J, etal. Changes in lung function and airway inflammation among asthmatic children residing in a woodsmoke-impacted urban area. Inhal Toxicol. 2008; 20(4):423–433.
        3. Becker S, Dailey LA, Soukup JM, Grambow SC, Devlin RB, Huang YC. Seasonal variations in air pollution particle induced inflammatory mediator release and oxidative stress. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113 (8):1032–1033.
        4. Becker, S., Fenton, M.J., Soukup, J.M., Involvement of microbial components and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in cytokine responses to air pollution particles. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 2002, 27, 611 – 618.
        5. Bell ML, Ebisu K, Peng RD, etal. Seasonal and regional short-term effects of fine particles on hospital admissions in 202 US counties, 1999–2005. Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 168(11):1301–1310.
        6. Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, et al. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2004; 109: 2655– 2671.
        7. Campbell ME, Li Q, Gingrich SE, Macfarlane RG, Cheng S. Should people be physically active outdoors on smog alert days? Can J Public Health. 2005; 96(1):24–8.
        8. Cellular and molecular immunology. Abol K. Abbas and et al. Saunders Elsevier, 2010. Page 330.
        9. Chinedu Nwokoro, Clare Ewin, Clare Harrison, Mubin Ibrahim, Isobel Dundas, Iain Dickson, Naseem Mushtaq and Jonathan Grigg. Cycling to work in London and inhaled dose of black carbon. Eur Respir J 2012; 40: 1091–1097.
        10. Daigle CC, Chalupa DC, Gibb FR, et al. Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhal Toxicol. 2003, 15(6):539–52.
        11. F. J. Kelly and J. C. Fussell. Air pollution and airway disease. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 41, 2011, 1059–1071.
        12. Farina F, Sancini G, Mantecca P, Gallinotti D, Camatini M, Palestini P. The acute toxic effects of particulate matter in mouse lung are related to size and season of collection. Toxicol Lett. 2011; 202(3):209–217.
        13. Fundamental principle of exercise physiology for fitness, performance and health. Robert A. roberge – Scott O. Roberts. 2000, page 231.
        14. Gordon Fisher and et al. Effect of Diet With and Without Exercise Training on Markers of Inflammation and Fat Distribution in Overweight Women. Obesity (2011) 19, 1131–1136.
        15. Hetland RB, Cassee FR, Lag M, Refsnes M, Dybing E, Schwarze PE. Cytokine release from alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter: heterogeneity in relation to size, city and season. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2005; 2:4.
        16. Jacobs L, Nawrot TS, de Geus B, et al. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study. Environ Health. 2010; 9:64.
        17. Ji LL. Modulation of skeletal muscle antioxidant defense by exercise: role of redox signaling. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008; 44(2): 142–52.
        18. Julie A Bourdon and et al. Carbon black nanoparticle instillation induces sustained inflammation and genotoxicity in mouse lung and liver. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2012, 9:5.
    2. Laura K. Stewart and et al. InXuence of exercise training and age on CD14+ cell-surface expression of toll-like receptor 2 and 4. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2005, Pages 389–397.
      1. Laurel E Plummer and et al. Impact of air pollution on lung inflammation and the role of Toll-like receptors. International Journal of Interferon, Cytokine and Mediator Research 2012:4 43–57.
      2. Mehdi Kargarfard and et al. Effects of Exercise in Polluted Air on the Aerobic Power, Serum Lactate Level and Cell Blood Count of Active Individuals. Int J Prev Med. 2011 Jul-Sep; 2(3): 145–150.
      3. Menegali BT, Nesi RT, Souza PS, et al. The effects of physical exercise on the cigarette smoke–induced pulmonary oxidative response. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 22(6):567–73.
      4. Meng YY, Rull RP, Wilhelm M, Lombardi C, Balmes J, Ritz B. Outdoor air pollution and uncontrolled asthma in the San Joaquin Valley, California. J Epidemiol Community Health 2010; 64:142–7.
      5.  Michael Gleeson, Nicolette C. Bishop, David J. Stensel, Martin R. Lindley, Sarabjit S. Mastana and Myra A. Nimmo. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Inflammation, Exercise and Metabolism Research Group.2011, 1-10.
      6. Mussi RK, Camargo EA, Ferreira T, et al. Exercise training reduces pulmonary ischaemia–reperfusion-induced inflammatory responses. Eur Respir J. 2008; 31(3):645–9.
      7. Paffenbarger RS Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Hsieh CC. Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. N Engl J Med. 1986; 314(10):605–13.
      8. Pastva A, Estell K, Schoeb TR, Atkinson TP, Schwiebert LM. Aerobic exercise attenuates airway inflammatory responses in a mouse model of atopic asthma. J Immunol. 2004; 172(7):4520–6.
      9. Patel H, Eo S, Kwon S. Effects of diesel particulate matters on inflammatory responses in static and dynamic culture of human alveolar epithelial cells. Toxicol Lett. 2011; 200 (1–2):124–31.
      10. Petra Jackson and et al. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring. Nanotoxicology, August 2012; 6(5): 486–500.
      11. Pischon T, Hankinson SE, Hotamisligil GS, Rifai N, Rimm EB. Leisure-time physical activity and reduced plasma levels of obesity-related inflammatory markers. Obes Res 2003; 11:1055–1064.
      12. Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S. Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008; 44(2):153–9.
      13. Robert Silbajoris and et al. Ambient Particulate Matter Induces Interleukin‑8 Expression through an Alternative NF-κB (Nuclear Factor-Kappa B) Mechanism in Human Airway Epithelial Cells. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2011, volume 119, (10), 1379-1383.
      14. Rodrigo Fernandez and et al. Effects of eccentric exercise on toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Journal of Applied Physiology June 15, 2012. 112. 2011-2018.
      15.  Rosenlund M, Forastiere F, Porta D, De Sario M, Badaloni C, Perucci CA. Traffic- related air pollution in relation to respiratory symptoms, allergic sensitization and lung function in schoolchildren.Thorax 2009; 64:573–80.
      16. Sharman JE, Cockcroft JR, Coombes JS. Cardiovascular implications of exposure to traffic air pollution during exercise. QJM. 2004; 97(10):637–43.
      17. Sharman JE. Clinicians prescribing exercise: is air pollution a hazard? Med J Aust. 2005; 182(12):606–7.
      18. Strak M, Boogaard H, Meliefste K, et al. Respiratory health effects of ultrafine and fine particle exposure in cyclists. Occup Environ Med. 2010; 67(2):118–24.
      19. Tsan M-F, Gao B. Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2004; 76:514–519.
    3. VIEIRA and et al. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Aerobic Exercise in Mice Exposed to Air Pollution. Official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. 2012. 7, pp. 1227–1234.
      1. Vieira RP, Toledo AC, Ferreira SC, et al. Airway epithelium mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise on asthma. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011; 175(3):383–9.
      2. Wilson WE, Suh HH. Fine particles and coarse particles: concentration relationships relevant to epidemiologic studies. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1997; 47(12):1238–1249.
      3. Xiaohua Xu and et al. Effect of Early Particulate Air Pollution Exposure on Obesity in Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010; 30:2518-2527.
      4. Yasuharu Niwa and et al. Inhalation Exposure to Carbon Black Induces Inflammatory Response in Rats. Circ J 2008; 72: 144 –149.
      5. Yungling Leo Lee and et al. Air Pollution and Health Effects in Children. Air Pollution - Monitoring, Modelling and Health. 2012. 978-953-51-0424-7.
      6. Ziccardi P, Nappo F, Giugliano G et al. Reduction of inflammatory cytokine concentrations and improvement of endothelial functions in obese women after weight loss over one year. Circulation 2002; 105:804–809.