Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran

2 PhD Student of Exercise Physiology, Sports Medicine Research Center, Sport Sciences Research Institute of IRAN (SSRI), Tehran, Iran


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercises on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum levels of biochemical factors of urea (BUN), creatine (Cr) and uric acid (UAc) in type 2 diabetic men. The sample consisted of 23 type 2 diabetic patients with age range of 45-60 years old who were divided into two groups of experimental (N=13) and control (N=10). Experimental group performed aerobic exercises for 10 weeks (2-3 sessions per week, each session 60-90 minutes with intensity of 55-85% of maximum heart rate) whereas control group had their daily activity. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and after the intervention phase. The variables were measured using autoanalyzer biochemical sets. To analyze the data, paired sample t test was used. Results showed that glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (P=0.028), urea (BUN) (P=0.013), and creatine (Cr) (P=0.027) reduced in experimental group whereas these variables did not change drastically in control group. These results suggested that 10 weeks of aerobic exercises improve blood urea and creatine while these exercises did not affect blood uric acid (UAc). In other words, these exercises can contribute to renal improvement in these patients.



    1. 1.       Praet SF, van Loon LJ. (2007). “Optimizing the therapeutic benefits exercise in type 2 diabetes”. J Appl Physiol, 103: 1113-1120.
    2. 2.       Rawal LB, Tapp RJ, Williams ED, Chan C, et al. (2011).” Prevention of type 2 diabetes and its complications in developing countries: A Review”. Int J Behav Med. 4: 18-28.
    3. 3.       Esteghamati A, Gouya MM, Abbasi M, Delavari A, Alikhani S, Alaedini F, et al. (2008). “Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in the adult population of Iran, national survey of risk factors for non-communicable diseases of Iran”. Diabetes Care, 31: 96-98.
    4. 4.       Mueller MJ. (2008).” People with diabetes: a population desperate for movement”. Phys Ther. 88: 1250-1253.
    5. 5.       InternationalDiabetesFederation, (2009). “Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus”. Diabetes Care 33 (1): S62–S69. 
    6. 6.       American Diabetes Association (ADA), (2010). “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus”. Diabetes Care, 33: 61-67. 
    7. 7.       Juan FN, Carmen MF. (2006). “The role of TNF-α in diabetic nephropathy. Pathogenic and therapeuticimplications”. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, 17:441-50.
    8. 8.       Ronald JS, Glen PK, David HW, Carmen CS. (2005). “Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Spectrum, 18:88-101.
    9. 9.       Patricia J. Allen (2012). “Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutical value?”. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 36:1442-1462.
    10. 10.    Peirce NS. (1999). “Diabetes and exercise”. Br J Sport Med, 33:161-72.
    11. 11.    Lippi G and et al (2008). “Acute variation of estimated glomerular filtration rate following a half-marathon run”. Int J Sports med, 29: 948-951.
    12. 12.    Chad D, Touchberry, Ernsting M, Haff G, Kilgorel (2004). “Training alteration in elite cyclists may cause tranisient changes in glomerular filtration rate”. J sports science med, 3 (1); 28-38.
    13. 13.    Jacques R, Poortmans and michel ouchinskg (2006). “Glomerular filtation Rate and Albumin Excretion after Maximal Exercise in Aging Sedentary and Active men”. J Geron, 11 (61): 1181-1185.
    14. 14.    Tseng CH (2005). “Correlation of uric acid and urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan”. Kidney Int, 68(2): 796-801.
    15. 15.    Nagahama K, Inoue T, Iseki K, Touma T, Kinjo K, Ohya Y, et al (2004). “Hyperuricemia as a predictor of hypertension in a screened cohort in Okinawa, Japan”. Hypertens Res, 27(11): 835
    16. 16.    Tseng CH (2004). “Independent association of uric acid levels with peripheral arterial disease in Taiwa-nese patients with Type 2 diabetes”. Diabet Med, 21(7): 724-9.
    17. 17.    Kang DH, Nakagawa T, Feng L, Watanabe S, Han L, Mazzali M, et al (2002). “A role for uric acid in the progression of renal disease”. J Am Soc Neph-rol, 13(12): 2888-97.
    18. 18.    Nakagawa T, Mazzali M, Kang DH, Kanellis J, Watanabe S, Sanchez-Lozada LG, et al (2003). “Hyper-uricemia causes glomerular hypertrophy in the rat”. Am J Nephrol, 23(1): 2-7.
    19. 19.    Sanchez-Lozada LG, Tapia E, Santamari'a J, Avila-Casado C, Soto V, Nepomuceno T, et al (2005). “Mild hyperuricemia induces vasoconstriction and maintains glomerular hypertension in normal and remnant kidney rats”. Kidney Int, 67(1): 237-47.
    20. 20.    Bo S, Cavallo-Perin P, Gentile L, Repetti E, Pagano G (2001). “Hypouricemia and hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetes: two different phenotypes”. Eur J Clin Invest, 31(4): 318-21.
    21. 21.    Wun YT, Chan CS, Lui CS (1999). “Hyper uricemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Diabetes Nutr metab, 12(4): 286-91.
    22. 22.    Nahid Bijeh, Samaneh Farahati (2013). “The Effect of Six Months of Aerobic training on Renal Function Markers in Untrained Middle-Aged Women”. International Journal of Sport Studies. 3 (2), 218-224,
    23. 23.    Ramezanpour MR, Hejazi SM, Mottaghy Shahri S, Kianmehr M, Mottaghy Shahri MR (Aut 2013). “Comparison the effect of interval, continuous and parallel aerobic exercise on urea, uric acid and creatinine of urine level”. Quart Horizon Med Sciences, 19(3): 137-141 [Persian].
    24. 24.    Rafati Fard M, Taghian F, Pakfetrat M, Daryanoosh , mohammadi H (2011 Dec). “The Effect of aerobic training on the Amount of GFR and excreted of Creatinine in Patients with Chronic kidney”. J Army Univ Med Sci, 9(4): 264-270 [Persian].
    25. 25.    Doustar Y, Salehi I, Mohammadi M, Mohajeri D, Hashemi M (2008). “Study effect Treadmill Training on neuropathy in experimental diabetes rats”. J scie Med Azad Univ, 17(4): 187-192 [Persian].
    26. 26.    Gaeini AA, Hoseini A, Samadi A (Aut 2011). “Compare of Excretion Urinary Protein in two Protocol semi-Football and solemn-football”. J Metabolic Physical Sport, 2: 99-106 [Persian].
    27. 27.    Elena G, Klans L (2006). “Leukocyte recruitment and vascular injury in diabetic nephropathy”. Am Soci Nephro, 17:368-377. 
    28. 28.    Keen H, Viberti GC (1981). “Genesis and evolution of diabetic nephropathy”. J Clin Pathol, 34:1261-66.
    29. 29.    American College of Sports Medicine (2009). “Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults”. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41: 687–708.
    30. 30.    Ebbeling CB, Ward A, Puleo EM, Widrick J, Rippe JM (1991). “Development of a single-stage submaximal treadmill walking test”. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 23(8):966-73.
    31. 31.    Levey A S, Coresh J, Balk E. Kausz AT, Levin A, Steffes MW, Hogg R J, Perone R D, Lau J, Eknoyan G (2003). “National Kidney Foundation Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney disease: Evaluation, Classification and stratification”. Annals of internal medicine, 2: 137-147.
    32. 32.    Cohen J (1977). “Statistical Power Analysis for Behavioral Sciences”. 2thed. New York, Academic Press, P. 19-20.
    33. 33.    Daneshmandi , H, Bambaeichim , E , Rahnama , N (2013). “Effect of Eight Weeks Running Continuous Training on Some Indicators Damages Urinary System Following Acute Exercise Session”. Olympic quarterly, 62(Issue 2), P. 7-20 [Persian].
    34. 34.    Clarkson P, Kearns A, Rouzier P, Rubin R, Thompson P (2006). “Serum Creatine Kinase Levels and Renal Function Measures in Exertional Muscle Damage”. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(4):623-627. 
    35. 35.    Huang L, Huang Ch, Chen ML, Mao IF (2010). “Effects of profuse sweating induced by exercise on urinary uric acid excretion in a hot environment”. Chinese J Physiol, 4(53):254-61.
    36. 36.    Sokal P, Jastrzebski Z, Jaskulska E, Sokal K, Jastrzebska M, Radziminski L, et al (2013). “Differences in Blood Urea and Creatinine Concentrations in Earthed and Unearthed Subjects during Cycling Exercise and Recovery”. Hindawi, 382643:1-6.