Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license


1 MSc, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

4 Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


The aim of this study was to compare the effect of six weeks of volleyball specific training on the sand and hard surface (sport hall) on the resting levels and responses of lactate, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to acute exercise in volleyball players. For this purpose, 18 male volleyball players (Mean±SD; age, 23.7±3.7; weight, 75.3± 1.7) were randomly assigned to two groups of sand and sport hall. Both group performed a six-week volleyball specific training with maximum intensity. Before and after the training period all subjects in both groups performed an acute exercise session. Two Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the acute exercise and were analyzed for measuring lactate, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To compare the effects of training on responses of biochemical parameters to acute exercise data were analyzed by using two-way ANOVA and the resting blood parameters were analyzed using independent t-test. The results showed that, the training on the sand reduces responses of lactate accumulation during acute exercise significantly (P<0/05). However, the training on the sand neither changed the resting levels of all parameters nor the responses of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to acute exercise. Generally, based on the better effects of sand volleyball training on the lactate responses to acute exercise and that injuries on the sand are less than hard surfaces, it could be concluded that this training modality would results in better performance in volleyball players.


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