Time Dependent Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in young males

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Humanities Faculty, Arak University, Arak, Iran

2 M.Sc. of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Humanities Faculty, Arak University, Arak, Iran


The aim of this study was to determine time dependent effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on oxygen kinetics in young males. 40 active students were randomly assigned to four groups: one session of HIIT, two sessions of HIIT, four sessions of HIIT and control. Both HIIT and control groups performed the incremental test on an ergometer bicycle. Two days after the pretest, training groups participated in one, two and four sessions of HIIT. Two days after the end of the training protocol, posttest was carried out. Oxygen kinetics parameters were measured by gas analyzer with breath-by breath method during the protocol, in the pretest and posttest test. The findings showed that one session of HIIT had no effects on oxygen kinetic parameters (P>0.05). Two sessions of HIIT improved some oxygen kinetic parameters such as VO2max, oxygen deficit and time constant 2 (P<0.05), but it had no effects on time constant 1 (P>0.05). In addition, four sessions of HIIT improved all oxygen kinetic parameters: VO2max, oxygen deficit, time constant 1 and 2 (P<0.05). It seems that four sessions of HIIT is the minimum necessary time to improve oxygen kinetic parameters and with regard to practical applications, coaches can use this type of training in their training program for faster improvement of aerobic and anaerobic performances


منابع و مآخذ
1-     Artero EG, Lee DC, Lavie CJ, España-Romero V, Sui X, Church TS. (2012). "Effects of muscular strength on cardiovascular risk factors and prognosis". J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 32(6): PP: 351-358.
2-      Bacon AP, Carter RE, Ogle EA, Joyner MJ. (2013). "VO2max Trainability and High Intensity Interval Training in Humans: A Meta-Analysis". PLoS One. 8(9): PP: 73182-73188.
3-      Bearden SE, Moffatt RJ. (2000). "VO(2) kinetics and the O(2) deficit in heavy exercise". J Appl Physiol. 88(4): PP: 1407-1412.
4-     Boone J, Bourgois J. (2012). "The oxygen uptake response to incremental ramp exercise: methodogical and physiological issues". Sports Med. 42(6): PP: 511-526.
5-     Buchheit M, Hader K, Mendez-Villanueva A. (2012). "Tolerance to high-intensity intermittent running exercise: Does oxygen uptake kinetics really matter". Front Physiol. 3: PP: 406-409.
6-     Burnley M, Jones A. (2007). "Oxygen uptake kinetics as a determinant of sports performance". Eur J S Sci. 7(2): PP: 63-79.
7-     Burnley M, Jones AM, Carter H, Doust JH. (2000). "Effects of prior heavy exercise on phase II pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics during heavy exercise". J Appl Physiol. 89(4): PP: 1387-1396.
8-     Dunham C, Harms CA. (2012). "Effects of high-intensity interval training on pulmonary function". Eur J Appl Physiol. 112(8): PP: 3061-3068.
9-      Gibala MJ, Jones A. (2013). "Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training". Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 76: PP: 51-60.
10-  Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ, Hawley JA. (2012). "Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease". J Physiol. 590(5): PP: 1077-1084.
11- Gist NH, Fedewa MV, Dishman RK, Cureton KJ. (2013). "Sprint Interval Training Effects on Aerobic Capacity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Sports Med. 12(5): PP: 251-259.
12-  Gurd BJ, Peters SJ, Heigenhauser GJ, LeBlanc PJ, Doherty TJ, Paterson DH. (2008). "O2 uptake kinetics, pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and muscle deoxygenation in young and older adults during the transition to moderate-intensity exercise". Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 294(2): PP: 577-584.
13-  Hebestreit H, Kriemler S, Hughson RL, Bar-Or O. (1998). "Kinetics of oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise in boys and men". J Appl Physiol. 85(5): PP: 1833-1841.
14-  Jones AM, Krustrup P, Wilkerson DP, Berger NJ, Calbet JA, Bangsbo J. (2012). "Influence of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle blood flow, O2 extraction and O2 uptake on-kinetics". J Physiol. 590(17): PP: 4363-4376.
16-  Kirsten A, Burgomaster I, Scott C, Hughes I, George J. (2005). "Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans". J Appl Physiol. 98: 1985–1990
17-  Little JP, Safdar A, Wilkin GP, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. (2010). "A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms". J Physiol. 588(6): PP: 1011-1022.
18-  McKay BR, Paterson DH, Kowalchuk JM. (2009). "Effect of short-term high-intensity interval training vs. continuous training on O2 uptake kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and exercise performance". J Appl Physiol. 107(1): PP: 128-138.
19-  McNarry MA, Welsman JR, Jones AM. (2011). "Influence of training status and exercise modality on pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics in pubertal girls". Eur J Appl Physiol. 111(4): PP: 621-631.
20-  Samantha G. Neil A. (2004). "Longitudinal changes in the kinetic response to heavy-intensity exercise in children". J Appl Physiol. 97: 460–466.
21-  Scheuermann BW, Barstow TJ. (2003). "O2 uptake kinetics during exercise at peak O2 uptake". J Appl Physiol. 95(5): PP: 2014-2022.
22-  Talanian JL, Galloway SD, Heigenhauser GJ, Bonen A, Spriet LL. (2007). "Two weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval training increases the capacity for fat oxidation during exercise in women". J Appl Physiol. 102(4): PP: 1439-1447
23- Timmons et al (Jun 2010). "Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans". J Appl Physiol. 108(6): 1487–96.
24-  Williams AM, Paterson DH, Kowalchuk JM. (2013). "High-intensity interval training speeds the adjustment of pulmonary O2 uptake, but not muscle deoxygenation, during moderate-intensity exercise transitions initiated from low and elevated baseline metabolic rates". J Appl Physiol. 114(11): PP: 1550-1562.
25-  Zanconato S, Cooper DM, Armon Y. (1991). "Oxygen cost and oxygen uptake dynamics and recovery with 1 min of exercise in children and adults". J Appl Physiol. 71(3): PP: 993-998.