The Effect of 12 Weeks of Combined Training on Plasma Apelin and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women

Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY 4.0 license


1 PhD of Exersice Physiologhy, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 . Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 . Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5 . Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Cellular & Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


The most important physiological role of apelin as a novel adipokine is co- relation with insulin hormone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks combined training on plasma apelin and insulin resistance index in overweight females. Therefore, 40 non athlete and over weight female students (BMI, 25-30), were selected and divided randomly in two experimental and control groups, equally. Training program was done seven days a week for 12 weeks. The endurance training program, which was performed four sessions per week, included intermittent running and walking. Two sessions per week were assigned to progressive resistance training consisted of circuit trainings. One session per week was also allocated to handball training. Blood samples were taken in fasting state from all subjects. Plasma apelin and insulin concentrates were determined by ELISA test. The statistical analyze of research was done by Repeated ANOVA (2×2), at the significance level of p


1.        Ahmadizad, S., Haghighi, A., Hamedinia, M (2005). Effect of resistance versus endurance training on serum adponectin and insulin ressistance index. European journal of Endocrinology. 157(5):625-631.
2.        Boucher J, Masri B, Daviaud D, Gesta S, Guigné C, Mazzucotelli A, Castan-Laurell I, Tack I, Knibiehler B, Carpéné C, Audigier Y, Saulnier-Blache JS, Valet P (2005). "Apelin, a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity". Endocrinology 146 (4): 1764–71.
3.        Castan-Laurell, I., Vítkova, M., Daviaud, D., Dray, C., Kováčiková, M., Kovacova, Z., Hejnova, J., Valet, P (2008). Effect of hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss in obese women on plasma apelin and adipose tissue expression of apelin and APJ. European Journal of Endocrinology .158 (6):905-910.
4.        Catherine P. Fenster, Roland L. Weinsier, Victor M. Darley-Usmar, Rakesh P. Patel) 2002). Obesity, Aerobic Exercise, and Vascular Disease: The Role of Oxidant Stress. Obes Res. 10:964 –968.
5.        Chin M. K., Archie Y. S. Lo, X. H. Li, Mimi Y. M. Sham, Yvonne W. Y. Yuan )1992). Obesity, diet, exercise and weight control - a current review J Hong Kong Med Assoc. 44 (3): 21-9.
6.        Dray C, Knauf C, Daviaud D, Waget A, Boucher J, Buléon M, Cani PD, Attané C, Guigné C, Carpéné C, Burcelin R, Castan-Laurell I, Valet P (2008). "Apelin stimulates glucose utilization in normal and obese insulin-resistant mice". Cell Metab. 8 (5): 437–45.
7.        Gideon R. Hajer, T.W., Haeften V., Frank L.g. Visseren) 2008). Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes, and vascular diseases. European Heart journal Advance Access. Down loaded from by guest on May 17, 2010.
8.        Hashimoto, T., Kihara, M., Imai, N., Yoshida, S.-I., Shimoyamada, H., Yasuzaki, H., Ishida, J., Umemura, S (2007). Requirement of apelin-apelin receptor system for oxidative stress-linked atherosclerosis. American Journal of Pathology. 171 (5):1705-1712
9.        Heinonen MV (2005). Regul Pept. Apelin, orexin-A and leptin plasma levels in morbid obesity and effect of gastric banding. 130(1-2):7-13.
10.    "Insulin Resistance". World Health Organization.
11.    Kadoglou N., Vrabas I., Kapelouzou A., Angelopoulou N (2012). The association of physical activity with novel adipokines in patients with type 2 diabete. European Journal of Internal Medicine. 23: 137-142.
12.    Kasai A, Shintani N, Oda M, Kakuda M, Hashimoto H, Matsuda T, Hinuma S, Baba A (2004). "Apelin is a novel angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 325 (2): 395–400.
13.    Kelly AS, Steinberger J, Olson TP, Dengel DR )2007). In the absence of weight loss, exercise training does not improve adipokines or oxidative stress in overweight children. Metabolism. 56(7):1005-9.
14.    Kleinz MJ, Davenport AP (2005). "Emerging roles of apelin in biology and medicine". Pharmacol. Ther. 1Masri B, Morin N, Cornu M, Knibiehler B, Audigier Y (December 2004). "Apelin (65-77) activates p70 S6 kinase and is mitogenic for umbilical endothelial cells". FASEB J. 18 (15): 1909–11.
15.    Krista V.A.; Surabhi B., Emily C. Shane P.A )2010). Adipokine Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise in Trained and Untrained Men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 42 (3):456-462. 
16.    Lago R., Go´mez R., Go´mez J., Dieguez C )2009). Adipokines as novel modulators of lipid metabolism. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 34(10): 33-8.
17.    Lambers S., Van Laethem C) 2008). Influence of combined exercise training on indices of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes patients. Clinical Rehabilitation. 22: 483-492.
18.    Lee DK, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Fan T, Kariyawasam AP, Liu Y, Osmond DH, George SR, O'Dowd BF (2000). "Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor". J. Neurochem. 74 (1): 34–41.
19.    Li, L., Yang, G., Li, Q., Tang, Y., Yang, M., Yang, H., Li, K (2006). Changes and relations of circulating visfatin, apelin, and resistin levels in normal, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetic subjects. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes. 114 (10):544-548.
20.    Poirier P., Giles T.D., Bray G.H., Hong Y.,Stern J.S., Pi-Sunyer X., Eckel R )2006). Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Evaluation and Effect of Weight Loss. Circulation. 113:898-918.
21.    Sörhede Winzell M, Magnusson C, Ahrén B (2005). "The apj receptor is expressed in pancreatic islets and its ligand, apelin, inhibits insulin secretion in mice". Regul. Pept. 131 (1-3): 12–7.
22.    Szokodi I, Tavi P, Földes G, Voutilainen-Myllylä S, Ilves M, Tokola H, Pikkarainen S, Piuhola J, Rysä J, Tóth M, Ruskoaho H (2002). "Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, regulates cardiac contractility". Circ. Res. 91 (5): 434–40.
23.    Tasci, I., Dogru, T., Naharci, I., Erdem, G., Yilmaz, M.I., Sonmez, A., Bingol, N., Erikci, S (2007). Plasma apelin is lower in patients with elevated LDL-cholesterol. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes. 115 (7):428-432.
24.    Tasci, I., Erdem, G., Ozgur, G., Tapan, S., Dogru, T., Genc, H., Acikel, C., Sonmez, (2009). A. LDL-cholesterol lowering increases plasma apelin in isolated hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis. 204 (1):222-228.
25.    Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, Zou MX, Kawamata Y, Fukusumi S, Hinuma S, Kitada C, Kurokawa T, Onda H, Fujino M (1998). "Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251 (2): 471–6. 
26.    Tatemoto K, Takayama K, Zou MX, Kumaki I, Zhang W, Kumano K, Fujimiya M (2001). "The novel peptide apelin lowers blood pressure via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism". Regul. Pept. 99 (2-3): 87–92. 
27.    Valet P(2008). Inserm Unit 858 "Institut de médecine moléculaire de Rangueil".
28.    Wajchenberg B.L )2000). Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue: Their Relation to the Metabolic Syndrome. Endocrine Reviews. 21 (6): 697-738.
29.    Yue, P., Jin, H., Aillaud, M., Deng, A.C., Azuma, J., Asagami, T., Kundu, R.K., Tsao, P.S (2010). Apelin is necessary for the maintenance of insulin sensitivity. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. 298 (1):E59-E67.
30.    Zhang J., Ren C.X., Qi Y. F., Lou L.X., Chen L., Zhang L.K., Wang X., Tang T. (2006). Exercise training promotes expression of apelin and APJ of cardiovascular tissues in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sciences.  79(12): 1153-1159.
31.    Zhuang X.F., Zhao M., Weng C., Sun N )2009). Adipocytokines: A bridge connecting obesity and insulin resistance. Medical Hypotheses. 73: 981–985.