The response of fitness factors to training periods in different ages

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistants prof. of physical education of Payame Noor University

2 Ph.D Student of exercise phyiology of Modares University

3 M.S Student of motor behavior of Razi University


Response to exercise training is different in variable age range, but it has not determined the differences physical response in Children, adults and youth. According to this idea, the purpose of present study is a randomized trial to compare the Effect of age on physical response in different periods to fitness training in various ages period. 36 participants voluntarily were randomized at three ranges of age included: 8 to 10 age group: 12 to 14 age group : 17 to 19 age group training divided into three groups of experimental in each age group. Mean SE of age was 8.83 ± 0.5year, adolescent 12.5 + 0.5 year and youth 16.3 + 0.6 year. The program included endurance, strength and flexibility training 3 times per week for 12 weeks. agility, coordination, sergeant jump, hand power, cardiovascular endurance, and modified push-up measured pre and post first 6 weeks and second 6 weeks training. Data analyzed by repeated measure and one ways of ANOVA and Benfroni post hoc test showed that body indexes is better in adolescent group and fitness indexes are better in children and youth group(P<0.05). Based on this study, improving health indicators for intra-group changes in all groups were observed especially in the beginning training, probably, it’s due to lower movement experiences. Although Between-group variation in health indicators, especially in adolescents, probably due to the added stress of exercise is associated with developmental stress especially in the course experience. The difference in performance between the groups of indicators for the effects of growth effects, hormonal changes and motor perception in different ages.


. باقرزاده، فضل‌الله؛ شیخ، محمود؛ شهبازی، مهدی و طهماسبی بروجنی، شهرزاد (1386)، بررسی ارتباط توانایی‌های حرکتی با آنتروپومتریکی و فعالیت جسمانی دانش‌آموزان 12تا 15 سالۀ شهر تهران، نشریۀ حرکت، شمارۀ 33، صص85- 77.
2. بومپا، تئودور (1383)، اصول و روش‌شناسی تمرین از کودکی تا قهرمانی، خسرو ابراهیم، ‌هاجر دشتی دربندی، پژوهشکدۀ تربیت بدنی.
3. شیخ، محمود، شهبازی، مهدی و طهماسبی بروجنی، شهرزاد (1390)، سنجش و اندازه‌گیری در تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، چاپ هفتم، تهران، بامداد کتاب،174-160.3
4. قراخانلو، رضا؛ کردی، محمدرضا؛ گائینی، عباسعلی؛ علیزاده، محمدحسین؛ واعظ موسوی، سید محمدکاظم و کاشف، مجید (1390)، آزمون‌های سنجش آمادگی جسمانی، مهارتی و روانی ورزشکاران نخبۀ رشته‌های مختلف ورزش، چاپ دوم، تهران، عصر انتظار،28-26و31.
5. کاتلین ام. هی وود، رشد و تکامل حرکتی در طول عمر (1385)، مهدی نمازی‌زاده، محمدعلی اصلانخانی، چاپ هفتم، تهران، انتشارات سمت، 368-411.
6. گالاهو، د. اُزمون، ج. (1383). درک رشد حرکتی در دوران کودکی، نوجوانی و بزرگسالی. ترجمۀ عباس بهرام، محسن شفیع‌زاده، تهران، نشر بامداد.
7. مالینا، رابرت م؛ بوچارد، کلود (1381). نمو، بالیدگی و فعالیت بدنی. ترجمۀ عباس بهرام و حسن خلجی، تهران، انتشارات امید دانش.
8. Armstrong, N., Kirby, B. J., McManus, A. M., & Welsman, J. R. (1997). Prepubescents' ventilatory responses to exercise with reference to sex and body size. CHEST Journal, 112(6), 1554-1560.
9. Armstrong, N. and J.R. Welsman (1994). “Assessment and interpretation of aerobic fitness in children and adolescents”. Exercise sports science Review, 22, 435-476.
10. Armstrong, N., and J.R. Welsmen (2001). Peak oxygen uptake in relation to growth and maturation in 11 to 17 year old human. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 85:546-551.
11. Armstrong, N., Tomkinson, G., & Ekelund, U. (2011). Aerobic fitness and its relationship to sport, exercise training and habitual physical activity during youth. British journal of sports medicine, 45(11), 849-858.
12. Baljinder Singh et al (2006). Effect of a short term plyometric training program of agility in young baskertball player. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity 271-278, (ISSN 1981-6324).
13. Baltimore Lippincott,Williams & Wilkins (2000).American College of Sports Medicine.ACS'M Guidelines for exercise testing  and prescription,(6 th ed).
14. García-Hermoso, A., Saavedra, J. M., Escalante, Y., & Domínguez, A. M. (2014). Effects of a long-term physical exercise program with and without diet on obese boys after six-month detraining. World Journal of Pediatrics, 10(1), 38-45.
15. Gunter, K. B., Almstedt, H. C., & Janz, K. F. (2012). Physical activity in childhood may be the key to optimizing lifespan skeletal health. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 40(1), 13.
16. Jakicic, J.M., & D.O. Amy (2005). "Physical Activity Consideration for the Treatment and Prevention of Obesity". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  21(2): 105-13.
17. Klausen, K.,B. Schibye, and B. Rasmussen (1989). A Longitudinal study of change in physical activity of 10-to15-yearold girls and boys. In: Children and exercise XIII.S. Oseid and K.-H. Carlsen (edu). Champaign, IL: Human kinetics, pp.113-122.
18. Malina, R.M., and C. Bouchard. Growth, maturation, and physical activity(2000). Champaign, IL: Human kinetics,.muzaini, K.S. Optimal peak and mean power on the wingate test: Relationship with sprint ability, vertical jump, and standing long jump in boys. Pediatr. Exerc.Sci. 12:349-359.
19. McNarry, M., & Jones, A. (2012). The influence of training status on the aerobic and anaerobic responses to exercise in children: A review.
20. Moore, J. B., W. Beets, M., J. Barr-Anderson, D., & Evenson, K. R. (2013). Sedentary time and vigorous physical activity are independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in middle school youth. Journal of sports sciences(ahead-of-print), 1-6.
21. Mucci, P., Baquet, G., Nourry, C., Deruelle, F., Berthoin, S., & Fabre, C. (2012). Exercise testing in children: Comparison in ventilatory thresholds changes with interval‐training. Pediatric Pulmonology.
22. Pearsona D.T., Naughtonb G.A., Torodea M. (2006). Predictability of physiological testing and the role of maturation in talent identification for adolescent team sports, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport  9, 277—287.
23. Pettersen, S. A., & Mathisen, G. E. (2012). Effect of Short Burst Activities on Sprint and Agility Performance in 11-to 12-Year-Old Boys. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(4), 1033.
24. Rowland, T.W., and L.N. Cunningham (1997). Development of ventilatory responses to exercise in normal white children. Chest 11:327-332.
25. Slentz C.A, B.D. Duscha, J.L. Johnson, et al. (2004). "Effects of the Amount of Exercise on Body Weight, Body Composition, and Measures of Central Obesity". Arch Intern Med. Jan 12; 164(1): 31-9.
26. Toubekis, A.G., Tsami, A.P., Smilios, I.G., Douda, H.T., & Tokmakidis, S.P. (2011). Training-Induced Changes on Blood Lactate Profile and Critical Velocity in Young Swimmers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(6), 1563.