Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most countries. This disease is directly associated with increased low–density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and is conversely associated with high–density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentrations. ABCA1 is the main exporter of phospholipid and cholesterol from cells to lipid-free or minimum lipid apolipoprotein. Studies clearly indicated that ABCA1 performance has a key role in the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and an effective role in preventing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of single session exercise (aerobic and resistance) on ABCA1 gene expression in lymphocytes in well – trained girls. 24 female athletes from Khorasan province were randomly selected and assigned to three groups: control (n=8), aerobic (AE) (n=8), and resistance (RE) (n=8). Blood samples of all subjects were collected prior to and after exercise session. Lymphocyte was separated using lymphocyte density gradient centrifugation and ABAC1 m–RNA expression was investigated by semi–quantitative RT-PCR. Data were analyzed by one–way ANOVA test (p?0.05). Results showed that RE and AE group following one session of exercise significantly increased m-RNA expression of lymphocyte ABCA1 gene (f=8.719 and P?0.001) while this increase in the RE group was higher than AE (P?0.005 vs. P?0.01). This study indicated that one session of aerobic and resistance exercise played an effective role in preventing cardiovascular disease though increased ABCA1 gene expression.