Bone marrow is a primary source of various kinds of blood cells and, thus, is frequently used for evaluation of therapeutic agents. The influence of physical regular training and curcumin supplementation on the cellularity of the femur bone marrow was investigated in rats exposed to lead acetate. 48 the Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the six groups include; 1)Base, 2)Sham-operate, 3)Lead acetate, 4)Aerobic training+lead, 5)Curcumin+lead supplementation and 6)Aerobic training+Curcumin+lead group (n=8 per group). The 3 to 6 groups received lead acetate (20 mg/kg) only, while the 5 and 6 groups also, received (30 mg/kg) Curcumin supplemention peritoneally 3 days in week for 8 weeks. Furthermore, rats in the 4 and 6 groups performed the progressive running exercise of 15 to 22 m/min for 25 to 64 min, 5 times a week. Bone marrow cellularity was measured by the image analyzing system and determined by the percentage of cellular marrow. Furthermore, Malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lead level were measured by TBARS, ELISA and Spectrophotometry methods in blood, respectively. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test and Tukey at P<0.05 level. Bone marrow cellularity was significantly lower in the lead acetate group compared with other groups. On the other hand, MDA and lead concentrations were significantly lower in the aerobic training, curcumin supplementation and aerobic training+curcumin groups compared with lead group. These results suggests environmental exposure to lead may be a risk factor for hematological and immunological diseases. Furthermore, performing the aerobic training and curcumin antioxidant supplementation can offer beneficial effects for preventing loss lead-induced administration in bone marrow cellularity. In addition, the data in the present study suggest that hypocellularity in the bone marrow of lead acetate group could be ascribed partly to the increase of oxidative stress.