The Effect of Resistance Training with and without Blood Flow Restriction on Serum Concentration of CAF, P3NP and Muscular Function in Elderly Women

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. Student of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

3 Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

Abstract

The elderly, despite their need to resistance training, usually abstain from these types of training especially at high intensities. One of the alternative methods is resistance training with blood flow restriction. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of resistance training with and without blood flow restriction on muscle strength, muscle endurance and serum concentrations of CAF and P3NP in elderly women. 40 elderly women (mean age of 62±3 years) were selected for this study. Then, they were randomly divided into four equal groups (n=10 for each group): resistance training with blood flow restriction (4 sets of 30,15,15,15 repetitions, 20–30% 1RM), resistance training without blood flow restriction (4 sets of 30,15,15,15 repetitions, 20–30% 1RM), traditional training (4 sets of 8-12 repetitions, 80% 1RM), and control. Blood samples and tests were taken before and after 12 weeks of training. ANOVA with repeated measures was used to assess the effects of training. Lower and upper extremity muscle strength and endurance significantly increased in three training groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference among three training groups (P>0.05). Also, none of the training protocols had a significant effect on plasma levels of CAF (P=0.94) and P3NP (P=0.94). Therefore, no significant difference was observed among the three training groups in improving the effects of resistance training so it can be asserted that low intensity resistance training with and without blood flow restriction, similar to traditional training, resulted in desirable changes in physical factors of the elderly women.

Keywords


منابع و مآخذ
1. Chatterji S, Byles J, Cutler D, Seeman T, Verdes E. Health, functioning, and disability in older adults--present status and future implications. Lancet. 2015;385(9967):563-75.
2. Kalache A, Aboderin I, Hoskins I. Compression of morbidity and active ageing: key priorities for public health policy in the 21st century. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002;80(3):243-4.
3. Crimmins EM. Lifespan and Healthspan: Past, Present, and Promise. Gerontologist. 2015;55(6):901-11.
4. Goto K, Nagasawa M, Yanagisawa O, Kizuka T, Ishii N, Takamatsu K. Muscular adaptations to combinations of high-and low-intensity resistance exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2004;18(4):730-7.
5. Fatouros IG, Kambas A, Katrabasas I, Nikolaidis K, Chatzinikolaou A, Leontsini D, et al. Strength training and detraining effects on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and mobility of inactive older men are intensity dependent. British journal of sports medicine. 2005;39(10):776-80.
6. Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen A, Valkeinen H, Alen M. Selective muscle hypertrophy, changes in EMG and force, and serum hormones during strength training in older women. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91(2):569-80.
7. Izquierdo M, Hakkinen K, Ibanez J, Garrues M, Anton A, Zuniga A, et al. Effects of strength training on muscle power and serum hormones in middle-aged and older men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90(4):1497-507.
8. Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K, Newton RU, Nindl BC, Volek JS, McCormick M, et al. Effects of heavy-resistance training on hormonal response patterns in younger vs. older men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87(3):982-92.
9. Haff GG, Triplett NT. Essentials of strength training and conditioning 4th edition: Human kinetics; 2015.
10. Bouzid MA, Filaire E, McCall A, Fabre C. Radical Oxygen Species, Exercise and Aging: An Update. Sports Med. 2015;45(9):1245-61.
11. Liu CJ, Latham N. Adverse events reported in progressive resistance strength training trials in older adults: 2 sides of a coin. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(9):1471-3.
12. MacDougall JD, Tuxen D, Sale DG, Moroz JR, Sutton JR. Arterial blood pressure response to heavy resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1985;58(3):785-90.
13. Vechin FC, Libardi CA, Conceicao MS, Damas FR, Lixandrao ME, Berton RP, et al. Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(4):1071-6.
14. Karabulut M, Abe T, Sato Y, Bemben MG. The effects of low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction on leg muscle strength in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(1):147-55.
15. Laurentino GC, Ugrinowitsch C, Roschel H, Aoki MS, Soares AG, Neves M, Jr., et al. Strength training with blood flow restriction diminishes myostatin gene expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(3):406-12.
16. Takarada Y, Ishii N. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with short interset rest period on muscular function in middle-aged women. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(1):123-8.
17. Shimizu R, Hotta K, Yamamoto S, Matsumoto T, Kamiya K, Kato M, et al. Low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction improves vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation in healthy elderly people. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(4):749-57.
18. De la Haba G, Kamali HM, Tiede DM. Myogenesis of avian striated muscle in vitro: role of collagen in myofiber formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1975;72(7):2729-32.
19. Prockop DJ, Kivirikko KI, Tuderman L, Guzman NA. The biosynthesis of collagen and its disorders (first of two parts). N Engl J Med. 1979;301(1):13-23.
20. Bolliger MF, Zurlinden A, Luscher D, Butikofer L, Shakhova O, Francolini M, et al. Specific proteolytic cleavage of agrin regulates maturation of the neuromuscular junction. J Cell Sci. 2010;123(Pt 22):3944-55.
21. Butikofer L, Zurlinden A, Bolliger MF, Kunz B, Sonderegger P. Destabilization of the neuromuscular junction by proteolytic cleavage of agrin results in precocious sarcopenia. Faseb j. 2011;25(12):4378-93.
22. Nishimune H, Stanford JA, Mori Y. Role of exercise in maintaining the integrity of the neuromuscular junction. Muscle & nerve. 2014;49(3):315-24.
23. Hettwer S, Dahinden P, Kucsera S, Farina C, Ahmed S, Fariello R, et al. Elevated levels of a C-terminal agrin fragment identifies a new subset of sarcopenia patients. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48(1):69-75.
24. Fragala MS, Jajtner AR, Beyer KS, Townsend JR, Emerson NS, Scanlon TC, et al. Biomarkers of muscle quality: N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen and C-terminal agrin fragment responses to resistance exercise training in older adults. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2014;5(2):139-48.
25. Drey M, Sieber CC, Bauer JM, Uter W, Dahinden P, Fariello RG, et al. C-terminal Agrin Fragment as a potential marker for sarcopenia caused by degeneration of the neuromuscular junction. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48(1):76-80.
26. Bondoc I, Cochrane SK, Church TS, Dahinden P, Hettwer S, Hsu F-C, et al. Effects of a one-year physical activity program on serum C-terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) concentrations among mobility-limited older adults. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. 2015;19(9):922-7.
27. Coetsee C, Terblanche E. The time course of changes induced by resistance training and detraining on muscular and physical function in older adults. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2015;12:7.
28. Van Roie E, Delecluse C, Coudyzer W, Boonen S, Bautmans I. Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48(11):1351-61.
29. Lowery RP, Joy JM, Loenneke JP, de Souza EO, Machado M, Dudeck JE, et al. Practical blood flow restriction training increases muscle hypertrophy during a periodized resistance training programme. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2014;34(4):317-21.
30. Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, Loenneke JP, Naimo MA. Practical blood flow restriction training increases acute determinants of hypertrophy without increasing indices of muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(11):3068-75.
31. Yasuda T, Fukumura K, Uchida Y, Koshi H, Iida H, Masamune K, et al. Effects of Low-Load, Elastic Band Resistance Training Combined With Blood Flow Restriction on Muscle Size and Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;70(8):950-8.
32. Fahs CA, Loenneke JP, Thiebaud RS, Rossow LM, Kim D, Abe T, et al. Muscular adaptations to fatiguing exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2015;35(3):167-76.
33. Scott BR, Slattery KM, Sculley DV, Dascombe BJ. Hypoxia and resistance exercise: a comparison of localized and systemic methods. Sports Med. 2014;44(8):1037-54.
34. Borde R, Hortobagyi T, Granacher U. Dose-Response Relationships of Resistance Training in Healthy Old Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2015;45(12):1693-720.
35. Mitchell WK, Williams J, Atherton P, Larvin M, Lund J, Narici M. Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review. Front Physiol. 2012;3:260.
36. Ogasawara R, Loenneke JP, Thiebaud RS, Abe T. Low-load bench press training to fatigue results in muscle hypertrophy similar to high-load bench press training. International Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2013;4(02):114.
37. Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, Dudley GA, Dooly C, Feigenbaum MS, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(2):364-80.
38. Fragala MS, Kenny AM, Kuchel GA. Muscle quality in aging: a multi-dimensional approach to muscle functioning with applications for treatment. Sports Med. 2015;45(5):641-58.
39. Landi F, Calvani R, Lorenzi M, Martone AM, Tosato M, Drey M, et al. Serum levels of C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF) are associated with sarcopenia in older multimorbid community-dwellers: Results from the ilSIRENTE study. Exp Gerontol. 2016;79:31-6.
40. Deschenes MR, Maresh CM, Crivello JF, Armstrong LE, Kraemer WJ, Covault J. The effects of exercise training of different intensities on neuromuscular junction morphology. J Neurocytol. 1993;22(8):603-15.
41. Bhasin S, He EJ, Kawakubo M, Schroeder ET, Yarasheski K, Opiteck GJ, et al. N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen as a biomarker of anabolic response to recombinant human GH and testosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(11):4224-33.
42. Socratis K, Kostas D, Athanasios D, Eleni D, Dimitrios K. The Influence of Physical Training on Blood Levels of Human Growth Hormone, Testosterone and Procollagen in Young Rowers. International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science. 2016;4(3):63-9.
43. Erotokritou-Mulligan I, Bassett EE, Bartlett C, Cowan D, McHugh C, Seah R, et al. The effect of sports injury on insulin-like growth factor-I and type 3 procollagen: implications for detection of growth hormone abuse in athletes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008;93(7):2760-3.