Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine that is predominantly secreted by visceral adipose tissue. Circulating levels of omentin-1 is inversely related to obesity. There is limited information about the effect of exercise training on serum omentin-1 concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of four weeks of progressive resistance training on serum omentin-1 levels. 16 male Wister rats (mean weight 288±19 g) were randomly divided into control (n=8) and training (n=8) groups. The resistance training consisted of climbing a ladder (8 repetitions/day, 3 days/week) carrying a load suspended from the tail with weights equivalent to 50, 75, 90, and 100% of their previous maximal carrying capacity and 30 g increment for each subsequent climb. After four weeks of resistance training, serum concentration of omentin-1, glucose and lipid profile were measured. Four weeks of progressive resistance training increased strength (maximal carrying capacity) in rats. Also, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of omentin-1, glucose and lipid profile between the groups (P>0.05). Changes of body weights in the resistance training rats were significantly lower than the control group (P=0.049). The results of this study indicated that serum levels of omentin-1 and lipid profile remained unchanged in rats despite of increased strength and prevention of weight gain induced by resistance exercise. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of exercise training and body composition on circulating levels of omentin-1.